State and local governments across the country are contracting with private companies to handle family adoptions. Above, parents work with a contracted adoption agency in Tampa, Fla., to adopt a teenager who had been in at least nine different foster homes.
AP Photo/Steve Nesius
State budget negotiations got stuck last September over a plan
that would introduce competitive contracting with private agencies into foster
care and juvenile justice services currently performed by state employees.
Opponents charged that the bill could raise the cost of these services, but
supporters were correct to anticipate lower costs and better services.
Ultimately, the state Legislature adopted a meager portion of the proposed
reforms as part of its fiscal 2008 budget deal.
Under the proposed legislation, state government would contract
with nonprofit and for-profit agencies to care for troubled youth who are now
enrolled in such juvenile justice institutions as the W.J. Maxey Boys Training
School. The state also would contract the supervision of foster care services to
such private organizations as Lutheran Social Services of Michigan, which is
already under state contract to perform some foster care functions. As part of
the compromise, private groups may now receive state resources to help foster
families get licensed by the state. Typically these families are related to the
child in some way. Private groups were allowed to help before this new
legislation but now they can receive state resources to do so.
There was vociferous opposition to the Senate version of the
bill, in large part because more than 800 state employees could have lost their
government jobs. The changes to the legislation that were made in a compromise
to ensure the Governor would sign the bill ultimately included an additional 190
full-time state employees. While this legislation may have made modest
improvements to the availability of foster care families it may have come at a
steep price. Another reason for the opposition was concern over handing
responsibilities for foster care and other human service-type functions over to
the private sector.
But social services privatization is not new. Kansas, for
example, is celebrating its 10th year of fully contracted foster care, family
preservation and adoption services. Michigan’s Kent County relies almost
entirely on private agencies for foster care and adoption services.
A 2006 literature survey financed by the Children’s Bureau of
the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reported that in the 1990s
alone, "Between 50 percent to 80 percent of states had increased their reliance
on contracted social services...." In fact, some state and local governments
contracted with the private sector for social services as far back as the early
Moreover, a 1993 Mackinac Center study found that 63 percent of
children in regular state foster care were managed by caseworkers in private
social service agencies under contract with Michigan government. The study also
found that these private agencies were doing a job comparable to or better than
state employees, even as the private groups maintained a lower child-to-worker
Opponents note that privatization would lead to higher state
contract monitoring costs, but they ignore the offsetting reductions in service
costs that usually result from privatization. While we can all sympathize with
the government workers who would lose their jobs, they may well find employment
with the new private service providers. In any event, state government is not a
Obviously, simply delegating state social service
responsibilities to community-based organizations will not automatically produce
guaranteed savings and improved outcomes. The success of this privatization
initiative — the details of which are under negotiation — will depend on a
variety of factors, including the degree to which the state’s contracting
process encourages many different private (and even public) bidders to compete
for the contracts and whether the contracts are carefully designed and monitored
to require quality care.
But there has been a dearth of bold ideas in Lansing for
balancing the state budget and improving state services. The foster care and
juvenile corrections privatization plan is innovative and deserves a chance.
Done correctly, it could transform children’s lives and state government by
improving services and saving money.
version of this commentary was originally published in The Detroit News on Oct.