The only nationwide survey of custodial contracting of which the authors are aware is the 2001 American School & University survey. According to AS&U, 8 percent of those public school districts responding to the survey contracted for janitorial services. The marketplace for janitorial services is extremely fragmented and varied. In Michigan, as can be seen in the 2007 Survey Results section, below, custodial services have been a noticeable growth area for competitive contracting in conventional public schools.