200 MASB Collective Bargaining Practical Guide, p. 5. This corresponds well to a nonscientific survey of variously sized school districts across the state conducted by La Rae Munk in 1998, which showed that salaries and benefits of all employees consumed an average of 82 percent of total school budgets.

201 Dawn Parker, "Union files labor complaint," The Jackson Citizen Patriot, February 28, 2006; see also "Union unhappy with District newsletter to residents," Michigan Education Digest, March 7, 2006, http://www.educationreport.org/7639 (accessed October 27, 2006).

202 Robert C. O’Reilly, "Things a Board Ought Never Bargain," presented at the Annual Meeting of the National School Boards, 1983, p. 2, cited in Munk, Collective Bargaining: Bringing Education to the Table, p. 19, n. 66.

203 Fuller and Mitchell, "A Culture of Complaint," p. 22.

204 William G. Keane, Win Win or Else: Collective Bargaining in An Age of Public Discontent (Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc., 1966), p. 25.

205 Telephone interview by La Rae Munk with the president of the Frankenmuth Teachers’ Professional Organization, February 25, 1998.

206 Munk, Collective Bargaining: Bringing Education to the Table, p. 36.

207 "Republican Legislators Seek to Restrain Health Care Costs," Michigan Education Digest, March 1, 2005, http://www.educationreport.org/6991 (accessed October 27, 2006), citing Booth Newspapers, "Legislators eye teacher benefit costs," February 25, 2005.

208 Matthew Robinson, "Across the Table from Unions," Investor’s Business Daily, March 19, 1998, p. 1A.

209 Munk, Collective Bargaining: Bringing Education to the Table, p. 36.

210 American Federation of Teachers, "Survey and Analysis of Teacher Salary Trends 2004," January 2006, http://www.aft.org/salary/2004/download/2004AFTSalarySurvey.pdf (accessed October 27, 2006).

211 "NEA study: Michigan teachers paid above national average," Michigan Education Digest, December 20, 2005, http://www.educationreport.org/7495 (accessed October 27, 2006).

212 American Federation of Teachers, "Survey and Analysis of Teacher Salary Trends 2004."

213 Frank Webster, "Teachers Deserve Good Benefits; Schools Deserve to Know What They Cost," Viewpoint on Public Issues, No. 98-20, July 6, 1998, Mackinac Center for Public Policy.

214 Hess and West, A Better Bargain, p. 25. Some teachers are not covered by the Federal Social Security Act, possibly resulting in increased contributions.

215 Dave Campbell, "Michigan Public Education Financial Problems and The Impact of the Cost of Medical Insurance," undated, p.1, available online at http://www.michigan.gov/documents/Olivet_114044_7.pdf (accessed October 22, 2006).

216 "MESSA: Unmatched value and security for families," MEA Voice, summer 2006, p. 5.

217 Frank Webster, "MESSA Rates Increase by 13.5% — Annual Premium Now $1.36 Billion," Impact Healthcare, April 12, 2005.

218 "Health insurance study draws heated responses," Michigan Education Digest, July 19, 2005, http://www.educationreport.org/7166 (accessed October 27, 2006).

219 Webster, Impact Healthcare, April 12, 2005. "MESSA Rates Increase."

220 St. Clair Intermediate Sch. Dist., 581 N.W.2d at 715.

221 Gary Heinlein, "GOP vows to revamp educators’ benefits," Detroit News, December 18, 2005.

222 Andrew P. Bockelman and Joseph P. Overton, Michigan Education Special Services Association: The MEA‘s Money Machine (Midland, MI: Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1993), p. 41, available online at http://www.mackinac.org/8 (accessed October 27, 2006).

223 St. Clair Intermediate Sch. Dist., 581 N.W.2d at 716.

224 MASB Collective Bargaining Practical Guide, p. 26.

225 U.S. Dept. of Labor, document 512-840 (Michigan Education Association, 2005 LM-2). Available online at www.dol.gov (accessed October 27, 2006).

226 Michigan H.B. 4274 (2005).

227 "Lakeview imposes teachers contract: teachers want to keep their union’s health insurance," The Macomb Daily, August 11, 2005; also reported in Michigan Education Digest, August 30, 2005.

228 "Care Choices HMO Draws Education Groups Away from the Michigan Education Special Services Association, According to HealthLeaders-Interstudy," September 12, 2005, http://www.prnewswire.com/news/index_mail.shtml?ACCT=104 &STORY=/www/story/09-12-2005/0004104985&EDATE (accessed October 27, 2006); see also "Insurance analyst: MESSA vulnerable to prices," Michigan Education Digest, September 13, 2005, http://www.educationreport.org/7354 (accessed October 27, 2006).

229 Ibid.

230 John Burdick, "Second impasse declared: Teachers unhappy with choices for health insurance coverage," The Holland Sentinel, January 17, 2006, http://hollandsentinel.com/stories/011706/local_20060117001.shtml (accessed October 27, 2006); see also "Holland declares second impasse, teachers get free insurance," Michigan Education Digest, January 17, 2006, http://www.educationreport.org/7551 (accessed October 27, 2006).

231 Ibid.

232 Leanne Smith, "Pinckney schools may avoid cutbacks," The Ann Arbor News, February 3, 2006; see also "Pinckney teachers voluntarily abandon MESSA," Michigan Education Report, February 7, 2006, http://www.educationreport.org/7585 (accessed October 27, 2006).

233 Ibid.

234 http://www.metrobureau.org (accessed October 27, 2006).

235 Michigan Alliance for Classrooms, Teachers, and Support Staff, "Senate Bills 895-898 Would Expose School Districts to Great Financial Risk and Leave Employees Dangerously Unprotected," SB 895-898 Facts, http://www.stopthetakeover.net (accessed October 27, 2006). (This alliance is a project of union members and others organizing the campaign against passage of SB 895-898 in 2005). See also "Michigan Senate passes health insurance bills," Michigan Education Digest, December 6, 2005, http://www.educationreport.org/7458 (accessed October 27, 2006), citing "House, Senate look to reduce school’s pension, health-care costs," Booth Newspapers, December 1, 2005.

236 "West Michigan schools aim to save money by changing health insurance," Michigan Education Digest, September 20, 2005, http://www.educationreport.org/7358 (accessed October 27, 2006), citing "Insurance switch saves schools money," Muskegon Chronicle, September 15, 2000.

237 Michigan S.B. 895-898 (2005).

238 "Michigan Senate passes health insurance bills," Michigan Education Digest, December 6, 2005, http://www.educationreport.org/7458 (accessed October 27, 2006), citing "House, Senate look to reduce school’s pension, health-care costs," Booth Newspapers, December 1, 2005.

239 Michigan Alliance for Classrooms, Teachers, and Support Staff, "Senate Bills Expose Districts to Risks."

240 "School Employee Health Care Report Suggests Potential Savings," Michigan Education Digest, August 2, 2005, citing Gongwer News Service, "G.O.P. Focuses on Savings in School Health Care Report," July 26, 2005; The Hay Group, "Report on the Feasibility and Cost-Effectiveness of a Consolidated Statewide Health Benefits System for Michigan Public School Employees," July 13, 2005, http://council.legislature.mi.gov (accessed October 27, 2006).

241 Michigan S.B. 896 (2005); H.B. 5387 (2005).

242 "School Employee Health Care Report Suggests Potential Savings,"

243 U.S. Constitution, Bill of Rights, Article XIV.

244 Ann Arbor Bd. of Educ. v. Abrahams, 507 N.W.2d 802 (Mich. App. 1993).

245 Linda Kaboolian, "Table Talk," p. 16.

246 Ibid.

247 MCL §§ 38.101, et seq.

248 Hess and West, A Better Bargain, p. 11.

249 Michael Janofsky, "Teacher Merit Pay Tied to Education Gains," The New York Times, October 4, 2005, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/04/college/coll04merit.html (accessed October 27, 2006). See also "Massachusetts looking at teacher merit pay," Michigan Education Digest, October 11, 2005,
http://www.educationreport.org/7380 (accessed October 27, 2006).

250 V. Dion Haynes, "Bonuses, Relaxed Rules Proposed: Pilot Programs Are Response to Gains By Charter Schools," Washington Post, June 6, 2006, B4.

251 Michael Prodgursky, "Personnel Policy in Traditional Public, Charter, and Private Schools," NCSC Review 1, no. 1 (2003), pp. 10-13, cited in Hess and West, A Better Bargain, p. 24.

252 Eric A. Hanushek and Richard R. Pace, "Who Chooses to Teach (and Why)?" Economics of Education Review 14, no. 2 (1995), pp. 101-117, cited in Hess and West, A Better Bargain, p. 24.

253 See, e.g., Deckerville EA Contract, 1997-2000, p. 28.

254 Michael Janofsky, "Teacher Merit Pay Tied to Education Gains," The New York Times, October 4, 2005.

255 MCL § 380.1250.

256 Shanker, "Al Shanker Speaks on Unions and Collective Bargaining," p. 37.

257 Saginaw Public School Master Agreement, 1995-1998, Appendix A, p. 70.

258 John Burdick, "District approves contracts with 3 unions," The Holland Sentinel, February 16, 2006, http://hollandsentinel.com/stories/021606/local_20060216018.shtml.

(accessed October 23, 2006); See also "Fennville ties raises to student performance," Michigan Education Digest, February 21, 2006,
http://www.educationreport.org/7597 (accessed October 27, 2006).

259 Munk, Collective Bargaining: Bringing Education to the Table, p. 39, quoting Rehmus and Wilner, The Economic Results of Teacher Bargaining, p. 19. The bracketed percentage was miscalculated in the original.

260 Chester E. Finn and Michael J. Petrilli, "The Elixir of Class Size," The Weekly Standard, March 9, 1998, p. 16.

261 Ibid.

262 Ibid.

263 Jay P. Greene, Education Myths, (New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005), p. 49.

264 Ibid., pp. 49-57.

265 MASB Collective Bargaining Practical Guide, p. 25, Appendix B: "Recommendations of the Staff Bargaining Strategy Implementation Team for Bargaining.".

266 City of Saginaw, 1990 MERC Lab Op 755.

267 Hess and West, A Better Bargain, p. 14.

268 Comstock Park Pub. Sch., 1987 MERC Lab Op 267.

269 MCL § 423.210(2).

270 Hoxby, "How Teachers’ Unions Affect Education Production," p. 683.

271 Stern, "How Teachers’ Unions Handcuff Schools," p. 40.

272 Hoxby, "How Teachers’ Unions Affect Education Production," p. 671.

273 Ibid., pp. 701-712.

274 Pennfield Public Schools Master Agreement, August 20, 1996, Article II, p. 1.

275 New Buffalo Public Schools Agreement, 1997-1999, p. 7.

276 North Muskegon Public Schools Master Agreement, August 16, 1994, p. 67.

277 MCL § 423.211.

278 Frank Webster, "Teachers Deserve Good Benefits; Schools Deserve to Know What They Cost."

279 "Otsego school bus drivers’ contract OK’d by board," Kalamazoo Gazette, November 15, 2005, see also Michigan Education Digest, November 29, 2005.

280 Linda Kaboolian, "Table Talk," p. 17.

281 Lawrence W. Reed, "Public Policy and American Business: The Privatization Revolution," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, December 24, 2003, http://www.mackinac.org/6051 (accessed October 27, 2006).