(This week is the sixth annual "National
Charter Schools Week." The article below originally appeared in the
May 1 School Reform News, published by
The Heartland Institute, based in Chicago.)
Charter schools — those public schools that must recruit
students and fulfill the terms of a contract or risk losing state funding —
continue to grow nationwide, both in number and in enrollment.
According to the
Center for Education Reform, more than 400 charter schools were started in
32 states in the 2004-2005 school year — a dramatic 15 percent nationwide
increase over the previous school year.
Joe Nathan, director of the University of Minnesota’s
Center for School Change at the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public
Affairs, estimates there are roughly 3,400 charter schools across the country
enrolling approximately 800,000 students.
"Clearly, there is a huge demand," Nathan said, noting the
growth has occurred in just 13 years, since City Academy opened in St. Paul,
Minn., with 50 kids in 1992. What’s driving that demand?
"Two things," Nathan said. "Hope and desperation."
Parents Unaware of Option
Nathan, who helped design Minnesota's charter school law in
1991 — the nation’s first — said, "There are some terrific district schools,"
but parents of many low-income and minority students are choosing charter
schools because these students "are not being well-served" by conventional
schools. Nathan and others observe many charter schools serve a higher
percentage of poor minority students than conventional public schools.
Regarding the future of charter schools, Nathan says they
will need to focus on "greater visibility and quality as their priorities."
Research suggests he may not be far off with either
In October 2003, the
Pew Hispanic Center sponsored a
survey conducted by International Communications Research and the Henry J.
Kaiser Family Foundation, which asked respondents whether they favored the
concept of charter schools. Fifty-nine percent of respondents said they didn’t
"know enough to have an opinion."
Public Agenda has reported these results and others like them.
Good State Laws Essential
Where quality is concerned, studies show many variables
contribute to student performance. One key variable, the Center for Education
Reform notes, is the strength of the state law under which charters operate.
In CER's "Charter School Laws Across the States: Ranking
and Scorecard," the eighth edition of which was published in 2004, evaluators
graded charter school laws in 40 states and the District of Columbia. The report
defines strong laws as those that don't "constrict operations, impose
administrative burdens, stifle creativity, and ... (don't) deter ... applicants
and charter operations."
The report also says, "Higher and more comprehensive
student achievement is found in charter schools in states that have stronger
How well did states measure up? According to the report,
only six states received "A" grades. Fourteen got B’s, and there were 13 C’s,
six D’s, and two F’s.
Parents "Desperate for Quality"
When describing parental demand for quality in Michigan —
one of the "A" states — Dan Quisenberry, president of the Michigan Association
of Public School Academies, uses the same word as Nathan: "desperate."
"Parents are desperate for quality schools for their
students," Quisenberry said. "Charter public schools are empowering parents and
educators, employing teachers and investing in neighborhoods — all while giving
kids a quality opportunity."
In the end, empowerment may be the ultimate cause of growth
in the charter school movement. A book by Dr. David Van Heemst, associate
professor of political science at Illinois’ Olivet Nazarene University,
published in October 2004, seems to provide confirmation: It's titled
"Empowering the Poor: Why Justice Requires School Choice."
Brian L. Carpenter is director of leadership development
for the Mackinac Center for Public Policy, a research and educational institute
headquartered in Midland, Mich. Permission to reprint in whole or in part is
hereby granted, provided that the author and the Center are properly cited.