19. What is a “CLEC”?


The method of transmitting voice or data as electrical signals.


The transmission capacity of the analog or digital line.

Baud Rate

The speed of an analog signal.


The digits used by computers to represent data for transmission.


Higher-speed data transmissions, typically greater than 128 kilobits

per second, in which multiple signals are simultaneously sent.


The packaging of various telecommunications services by a single provider, which may include local and long-distance calling, Internet connectivity and wireless.


Competitive Local Exchange Carrier. A firm offering local telephone service in competition with a former Bell company or other incumbent firm.

Coaxial Cable

Wide bandwidth copper cable deployed by cable TV companies.


Maximizing the density of data transmissions to increase

transmission efficiency.


Adding telecom services to a consumer’s bill without authorization.

Dialing Parity

The ability to place calls through a competing service provider using similar dialing patterns and without dialing extra digits or an access code.

Digital Ethernet

Light-wave transmissions arranged in binary units.


Local Area Networks. A connected set of computers and related hardware within a business or campus environment.


Local Access and Transport areas. The geographic delineation of

local calling boundaries crafted by the U.S. Justice Department as a result of the AT&T divestiture in 1984.


Metropolitan Area Networks. A connected set of local computer networks.


The conversion of analog signals to digital signals.


The division of digital signals into various frequencies to allow a single line to carry multiple transmissions of voice, video and data.


The operating rules governing communications transmitted between computers.


Changing a service provider without customer authorization.

TELRIC Total Element Long-Run Incremental Cost. The formula devised by the Federal Communications Commission to calculate the fees allowed for wholesale access to the local incumbent network.
Twisted Pair The copper wire used in the standard local telephone network.
VOIP Voice Over Internet Protocol. Transmission of voice calls through Internet connections.