1 George Meany, Testimony before the House Labor Committee, June 1959. See also, 67 Fed. Reg. 79,280, 1 (Dec. 27, 2002).

2 S. Rep. No. 187 on S. 1555, 86th Congress, 1st Session, April 14, 1959. Reprinted in Legislative History of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959, supra, at p. 397 et seq.

3 S. Rep. No. 187 on S. 1555, supra, at p. 8.

4 Ibid., 9.

5 67 Fed Reg. 79,280, 1 (Dec. 27, 2002).

6 Ibid., 1-2.

7 Ibid., 2.

8 Labor Organization Annual Financial Reports, U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Labor-Management Standards, 68 Fed. Reg. 58,374 (Oct. 9, 2003.)

9 29 U.S.C. § 402(i).

10 29 U.S.C. § 402(j).

11 S. Rep No. 187, supra, at p. 53.

12 29 U.S.C. § 438.

13 73 Fed. Reg. 57,412, 3 (Oct. 2, 2008).

14 Rescission of Form T–1, Trust Annual Report; Requiring Subsidiary Organization Reporting on the Form LM–2, Labor Organization Annual Report; Modifying Subsidiary Organization Reporting on the Form LM–3, Labor Organization Annual Report; LMRDA Coverage of Intermediate Labor Organizations; Final Rule, 75 Fed. Reg. 74,936 (Dec. 1, 2010).

15 Paul Pringle, “Leader’s Kin Get Union Business,” Los Angeles Times, Aug. 9, 2008, http://perma.cc/Y7EJ-B2ZV.

16 Paul Pringle, “SEIU Official Steps aside in Inquiry,” Los Angeles Times, Aug. 21, 2008, http://perma.cc/S66W-U6WH.

17 Paul Pringle, “U.S. Investigating Union Local, Chief,” Los Angeles Times, Aug. 28, 2008, http://perma.cc/7SK8-78UZ; Paul Pringle, “Congress Scrutinizes L.A. Local of SEIU,” Los Angeles Times, Aug. 29, 2008, http://perma.cc/48T7-BAHC.

18 Paul Pringle, “SEIU Alleges Misuse of Funds,” Los Angeles Times, Sept. 18, 2008, http://perma.cc/C2FK-9G7Y.

19 Ibid.

20 Paul Pringle, “Ex-Chief of L.A. Local Is Banned for Life by Union,” Los Angeles Times, Nov. 27, 2008, http://perma.cc/TN92-CA4D; Paul Pringle, “Union Sues Former Executive for $1.1 Million,” Los Angeles Times, April 1, 2009, http://perma.cc/VBR4-R6E3.

21 Paul Pringle and Richard Winton, “Former Leader of SEIU Local Is Indicted,” Los Angeles Times, Aug. 1, 2012, http://perma.cc/GBV5-KWDV.

22 Paul Pringle and Hailey Branson-Potts, “Ex-SEIU Local Exec Convicted of Stealing from Low-Income Members,” Los Angeles Times, Jan. 28, 2013, http://perma.cc/JX74-Z48H.

23 Paul Pringle, “Former SEIU Local Leader Gets 33 Months in Prison,” Los Angeles Times, Oct. 7, 2013, http://perma.cc/AT6Y-G68P.

24 Judy L. Thomas, “Boilermakers Union Leaders Receive Lofty Pay, Benefits,” The Kansas City Star, May 12, 2012, http://perma.cc/F7FU-XNHF.

25 Ibid.

26 U.S. v. Killingsworth, Case No. 12CR20742-1 (ED MI 2013).

27 Ibid.

28 U.S. v. Shaffer, Case No. 13CR20943-1, (ED MI 2015).

29 Copies of the reports are located online at: http://goo.gl/ZROrRi (accessed June 1, 2015).

30 MCL § 423.210(9).

31 Ibid.

32 Author’s calculation based on “MERC Labor Organization Audit Lookup” (Michigan Employment Relations Commission, 2015), http://goo.gl/15vI6w (accessed June 22, 2015).

33 29 U.S.C. § 431(b)(6).

34 29 U.S.C. §  431(b)(1)-(6).

35 29 U.S.C. § 438.

36 29 C.F.R. § 403.3.

37 29 C.F.R. § 403.4(a)(2).

38 29 U.S.C. § 437(b).

39 Author’s calculations based on 2014 Form LM-2 data, available here: “Download Yearly Data” (U.S. Department of Labor, May 30, 2015), http://goo.gl/vLGT9O (accessed June 2, 2015).

40 “Instructions for Form LM-2 Labor Organization Annual Report” (U.S. Department of Labor, Nov. 2010), 18, http://perma.cc/K7YM-KZ3A.

41 Ibid., 21. 

42 Ibid., 25-26.

43 Ibid., 27.

44 Ibid.

45 “Unions in Debt,” Wall Street Journal, June 11, 2009, http://goo.gl/ aEnOam (accessed June 2, 2015).

46 Author’s calculations based on 2012 Form LM-2 data, available here: “Download Yearly Data” (U.S. Department of Labor, May 30, 2015), http://goo.gl/vLGT9O (accessed June 2, 2015).

47 Ibid.

48 Brody Mullins and Tom McGinty, “Political Spending by Unions Far Exceeds Direct Donations,” Wall Street Journal, July 20, 2012, http://goo.gl/Xc6joU (accessed June 2, 2015).

49 Ibid.

50 “Instructions for Form LM-2 Labor Organization Annual Report” (U.S. Department of Labor, Nov. 2010), 29, http://perma.cc/K7YM-KZ3A.

51 Ibid., 30-31.