1. Michael Kinsley, “The Liberal Case Against Right-to-Work Laws” (BloombergView, Dec. 12, 2012), http://perma.cc/MVQ5-AU29; “Group Announces Campaign for Anti-Union Laws in Michigan” (Michigan Education Association, June 30, 2011), http://perma.cc/ MFF4-39WN; Heather Niemetschek, “Illinois Unions Wrote the Laws They Blame in ‘Fair Share’ Debate” (Illinois Policy Institute, Feb. 28, 2015), http://perma.cc/P82D-MWR2.

During a 2013 hearing on the Michigan Education Association's actions regarding the implementation of right-to-work, Michigan Sen. Arlan Meekhof, R-West Olive, chairman of the Compliance and Accountability Committee, asked MEA spokesman Doug Pratt, "Is there contention by the MEA that you would wish to be relieved of representing those people who want to opt out of the union?'" Pratt, after a pause, answered, "No." Jack Spencer, “MEA Says Union Members Should Have Known About Limited Window to Leave,” Michigan Capitol Confidential (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Dec. 5, 2013), http://perma.cc/GH5J-S9TB.

2. For example, see Robert P. Hunter, “Michigan Labor Law: What Every Citizen Should Know” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1999), 45–49, http://perma.cc/ZH87-CNGV.

3. Va. Code § 40.1-57.2.

4. “Collective Bargaining Policy” (Columbia Public Schools, July 28, 2011), http://perma.cc/KD2E-FH8V; Audrey Spalding, “Teacher Union Bargaining Cases Move Forward” (Show-Me Institute, Oct. 27, 2009), http://perma.cc/DF92-XR8P.

5. “2011 Wisconsin Act 10” (State of Wisconsin, March 11, 2011), http://perma.cc/NW3X-LM2M.

6. “Table 3: Union Affiliation of Employed Wage and Salary Workers by Occupation and Industry, 2013-2014 Annual Averages” (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Jan. 23, 2015), http://perma.cc/CPJ4-3D7U.

7. MCL § 423.210(1)(c).

8. William B. Gould, Agenda for Reform: The Future of Employment Relationships and the Law (The MIT Press, 1996); Charles J. Morris, The Blue Eagle at Work: Reclaiming Democratic Rights in the American Workplace (Ithaca, N.Y.: ILR Press, 2004); James Sherk, “The Right-to-Freeload Myth” (The Heritage Foundation, Dec. 10, 2012), http://perma.cc/UE3X-A9BV.

9. Macy’s, Inc. and Local 1445, United Food and Commercial Workers Union, 361 NLRB No. 4 (2014).

10. Ibid.

11. Kris Maher and Melanie Trottman, “Unions Can Organize ‘Micro Units,’ Court Affirms,” The Wall Street Journal, Aug. 16, 2013, http://perma.cc/7DHQ-UJ9P.

12. Audrey Spalding, “Use of Seniority to Determine Layoff Decisions” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Mar. 5, 2014), http://perma.cc/ V56F-BY7S; James Sherk and Ryan O’Donnell, “RAISE Act Lifts Pay Cap on Millions of American Workers” (The Heritage Foundation, June 19, 2012), http://perma.cc/TLU2-RJ69.

13. James Sherk and Ryan O’Donnell, “RAISE Act Lifts Pay Cap on Millions of American Workers” (The Heritage Foundation, June 19, 2012), http://perma.cc/TLU2-RJ69.

14. F. Vincent Vernuccio, “Unionization for the 21st Century: Solutions for the Ailing Labor Movement” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2014), http://perma.cc/D7VB-3E3U.

15. “Table 3: Union Affiliation of Employed Wage and Salary Workers by Occupation and Industry, 2013-2014 Annual Averages” (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Jan. 23, 2015), http://perma.cc/CPJ4-3D7U.