1 Steven Greenhouse, “Share of the Work Force in a Union Falls,” The New York Times, Jan. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/kg8LK (accessed July 11, 2014).

2 “Why You Should Care If the United Auto Workers Union Is Dead” (Michigan Public Radio, June 3, 2014), http://goo.gl/4aVcGm (accessed July 21, 2014).

3 Ibid.

4 Benjamin Sachs and Catherine Fisk, “Why Should Unions Negotiate for Workers Who Don’t Pay Their Fair Share?,” Los Angeles Times, July 9, 2014, http://goo.gl/7ze2YM (accessed July 21, 2014); “Benjamin Sachs” (Harvard Law School, 2014), http://goo.gl/D7VmFg (accessed Sept. 15, 2014); “Catherine Fisk” (University of California-Irvine, 2013), http://goo.gl/SoK9jh (accessed Sept. 15, 2014).

5 “The National Labor Relations Act”, sec. 9, http://goo.gl/y1nWnO (accessed July 21, 2014).

6 “The National Labor Relations Act,” http://goo.gl/y1nWnO (accessed July 21, 2014).

7 Robert P. Hunter, “Compulsory Union Dues in Michigan” (The Mackinac Center for Public Policy, May 1, 1997), http://goo.gl/4eoubw (accessed July 21, 2014).

8 “The National Labor Relations Act,” http://goo.gl/y1nWnO (accessed July 21, 2014).

9 John M. True III, “The Blue Eagle at Work: Reclaiming Democratic Rights in the American Workplace” (The Berkeley Journal of Employment & Labor Law, Mar. 2005), http://goo.gl/9xno9a (accessed July 21, 2014).

10 James Sherk, “Bad Arguments Against Right-to-Work” (National Review Online, Jan. 10, 2012), http://goo.gl/cdffVz (accessed July 21, 2014).

11 William B. Gould, Agenda for Reform: The Future of Employment Relationships and the Law (The MIT Press, 1996), 164.

12 Kris Maher and Melanie Trottman, “Unions Can Organize ‘Micro Units,’ Court Affirms,” The Wall Street Journal, Aug. 16, 2013, http://goo.gl/ImrR5d (accessed July 22, 2014).

13 Ibid.

14 Richard L. Trumka, “Remarks by AFL-CIO President Richard L. Trumka, 2013 Conference on New Models for Worker Representation, Chicago” (The AFL-CIO, March 7, 2013), http://goo.gl/zRKjq (accessed July 10, 2014).

15 Janice Fine, “How Innovative Worker Centers Help America’s Most Vulnerable Wage Earners” (Scholars Strategy Network, Aug. 2013), http://goo.gl/RBFVQN (accessed July 10, 2014).

16 “Worker Center Partnerships” (AFL-CIO, 2014).

17 “Working America Announces Plans to Expand into All 50 States in Five Years” (Working America, April 17, 2013), http://goo.gl/RRkohU (accessed July 11, 2014); “About Working America” (Working America), http://goo.gl/VwgRF7 (accessed July 10, 2014).

18 “Working America Announces Plans to Expand into All 50 States in Five Years” (Working America, April 17, 2013), http://goo.gl/RRkohU (accessed July 11, 2014).

19 “About Working America” (Working America), http://goo.gl/ VwgRF7 (accessed July 10, 2014).

20 “Benefits” (Working America, 2014), http://goo.gl/Ylafh2 (accessed Sept. 18, 2014).

21 “AFL-CIO Convention 2013 Resolution 5: A Broad, Inclusive and Effective Labor Movement” (The AFL-CIO, September 2013), http://goo.gl/B1WQqP (accessed July 10, 2014).

22 Kevin Bogardus, “Unions Push Back against Labor’s Ties to Progressive Groups,” The Hill, Sept. 9, 2013, http://goo.gl/V98a68 (accessed July 10, 2014).

23 Cheryl K. Chumley, “Blue-Collar Laborers Rebel at AFL-CIO’s Embrace of Progressives,” The Washington Times, Sept. 10, 2013, http://goo.gl/Q95MKy (accessed July 10, 2014).

24 For more information, see: Trey Kovacs and F. Vincent Vernuccio, “Corporate Campaigns” (Competitive Enterprise Institute, April 30, 2012), http://goo.gl/wjUhgR (accessed July 10, 2014).

25 F. Vincent Vernuccio, “SEIU Intimidation Manual Exposed!” (Competitive Enterprise Institute, Sept. 17, 2011), http://goo.gl/ GzSQqw (accessed July 10, 2014).

26 Ibid.

27 Steven Greenhouse, “Wal-Mart Workers Try the Nonunion Route” (The New York Times, June 14, 2011), http://goo.gl/4JjwXT (accessed July 11, 2014).

28 For more information, see: Clare O’Connor, “Walmart On PR Offensive As Thanksgiving Fights Go Public , With Protests Scheduled For Black Friday” (Forbes, Nov. 29, 2013), http://goo.gl/9jLgn9 (accessed Sept. 19, 2014); Emily Jane Fox, “Wal-Mart Warns Workers on Black Friday Strike” (CNN Money, Nov. 21, 2012), http://goo.gl/lhupq (accessed Sept. 19, 2014).

29 Steven Greenhouse, “Wal-Mart Workers Try the Nonunion Route” (The New York Times, June 14, 2011), http://goo.gl/4JjwXT (accessed July 11, 2014).

30 Hadas Gold, “Vincent Gray Vetoes Bill Aimed at Wal-Mart” (Politico, Sept. 12, 2013), http://goo.gl/vBlr3P (accessed Sept. 19, 2014).

31 Steven Greenhouse, “Advocates for Workers Raise the Ire of Business,” The New York Times, Jan. 16, 2014, http://goo.gl/ABkU4u (accessed July 11, 2014); “Restaurant Workers Flashmob Dance for Justice” (Restaurant Opportunities Centers United, Aug. 18, 2011), http://goo.gl/vBtnZL (accessed Oct. 7, 2014).

32 Julia Tavlas, “Uncle Sam Pays Activists to Hit ‘ROC’ Bottom” (Capital Research Center, Aug. 2, 2013), http://goo.gl/1Cz01v (accessed July 10 2014).

33 Trey Kovacs, “Worker Centers Collecting Federal Funds” (Competitive Enterprise Institute, Sept. 19, 2013), http://goo.gl/ uCqr9q (accessed July 10, 2014).

34 Stefan Marculewicz and Jennifer Thomas, “Labor Organizations by Another Name: The Worker Center Movement and Its Evolution into Coverage under the NLRA and LMRDA,” The Federalist Society (The Federalist Society, Nov. 19, 2012), http://goo.gl/XzgGhI (accessed July 10, 2014).

35 Josh Eidelson, “AFL-CIO’s Non-Union Worker Group Headed Into Workplaces in Fifty States” (The Nation, April 17, 2013), http://goo.gl/ 1mWfZN (accessed July 10, 2014).

36 “Apprenticeship Training” (National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee for the Electrical Industry), http://goo.gl/tCs5zl (accessed July 22, 2014).

37 Jamie Dimon and Marlene Seltzer, “Closing the Skills Gap” (Politico Magazine, Jan. 5, 2014), http://goo.gl/X6LGA5 (accessed July 22, 2014).

38 “JPMorgan Chase Launches $250 Million Global Economic Opportunity Initiative” (JPMorgan Chase & Co., Dec. 12, 2013), http://goo.gl/1pPfSQ (accessed July 22, 2014).

39 “Boiling Point? The Skills Gap in U.S. Manufacturing” (Deloitte and the Manufacturing Institute, 2011), http://goo.gl/Mck9w (accessed July 22, 2014).

40 “ASE at a Glance” (National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence), http://goo.gl/r67B8k (accessed July 22, 2014).

41 “About the NJATC” (National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee for the Electrical Industry), http://goo.gl/TBMDBn (accessed July 22, 2014); “IBEW Local 58 Electrical Industry Training Center” (GreeningDetroit.com, 2014), http://goo.gl/7T4WOr (accessed Sept. 19, 2014).

42 “IBEW Local 58 Electrical Industry Training Center” (GreeningDetroit.com, 2014), http://goo.gl/7T4WOr (accessed Sept. 19, 2014).

43 “Training and Apprenticeships” (The AFL-CIO), http://goo.gl/FfP34 (accessed July 22, 2014).

44 Steven Greenhouse, “Tackling Concerns of Independent Workers,” The New York Times, March 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/t08j9C (accessed July 22, 2014).

45 “About Us: FAQ’s” (Freelancers Union), http://goo.gl/4oLhmD (accessed July 22, 2014); “Corporate Discounts” (Freelancers Union), http://goo.gl/Qy7ATX (accessed July 22, 2014).

46 “About the American Bar Association” (American Bar Association), http://goo.gl/fDBAaG (accessed July 22, 2014).

47 “Benefits of Membership in the American Bar Association” (American Bar Association), http://goo.gl/52haQ9 (accessed July 22, 2014); “ABA Advantage Discounts” (American Bar Association, 2014), http://goo.gl/woCShD (accessed July 22, 2014).

48 “Join the Association of American Educators” (Association of American Educators), http://goo.gl/XpZBSf (accessed July 22, 2014); “CEAI Membership Fees” (Christian Educators Association International), http://goo.gl/Mhc08f (accessed July 22, 2014).

49 “Member Benefits” (Association of American Educators), http://goo.gl/JolZZ4 (accessed July 22, 2014).

50 “CEAI Member Insurance Program” (Christian Educators Association International), http://goo.gl/tVosaJ (accessed July 22, 2014); “CEAI Membership Fees” (Christian Educators Association International), http://goo.gl/Mhc08f (accessed July 22, 2014).

51 “MLBPA Info” (Major League Baseball Players Association), http://goo.gl/81VjUL (accessed July 22, 2014).

52 “2005 SAG Basic Agreement” (Screen Actors Guild-American Federation of Television and Radio Artists, 2005), http://goo.gl/ee8jAU (accessed July 22, 2014).

53 “Join AAA” (American Automobile Association), http://goo.gl/14ylze (accessed July 22, 2014).