1  Paul Kersey, “Michigan’s Public Employment Relations Act: Public-Sector Labor Law and Its Consequences” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2009), http://www.mackinac.org/10911 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

2  Smith v. Arkansas Highway Employees, 441 U. S. 463 (1979)

3  Richard Dreyfuss, “Michigan’s Public-Employee Retirement Benefits: Benchmarking and Managing Benefits and Costs” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2010), 8, http://www.mackinac.org/13862 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).; see also James Hohman and Adam Rule, “Diminishing Private Sector Keeps Supporting Bloated Public Benefits” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2009), http://www.mackinac.org/10839 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

4  Richard Dreyfuss, “Michigan’s Public-Employee Retirement Benefits: Benchmarking and Managing Benefits and Costs” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2010), 8-13, http://www.mackinac.org/13862 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

5  Michael Van Beek, “Michigan Public School Health Insurance Costs Soar Above National Trends”  (Midland: Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2010). See also Frank Webster, “School Boards Empowered to Save Insurance Dollars” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2007), http://www.mackinac.org/9148 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

6  Paul Kersey, “Lansing Proposes, the MEA Disposes,” The Detroit News, Feb. 4, 2010, http://www.mackinac.org/12095 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011). See also Marc Holley, “A Teacher Quality Primer for Michigan School Officials, State Policymakers, Media and Residents” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2008), http://www.mackinac.org/9576 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

7  Paul Kersey, “A Law Unto Itself: Police Contract Undermines Law and Order” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2010), http://www.mackinac.org/12821 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

8  James Hohman, “Michigan Public Employees Compensation Growing Despite Concessions Claims” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2010), http://www.mackinac.org/12433 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011); see also James Hohman, “Michigan Public Payrolls Protected in Recent Recession,” Michigan Capitol Confidential, July 13, 2010, http://www.michcapcon.com/13169 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

9  Paul Kersey, “Union Spending in Michigan: A Review of Union Financial Disclosure Reports” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2008), http://www.mackinac.org/9757 (accessed Sept. 1, 2009).

10  Paul Kersey, “Michigan’s Public Employment Relations Act: Public-Sector Labor Law and Its Consequences” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2009), 11-17, http://www.mackinac.org/10911 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

11  MCL § 423.207-207a; MCL § 423.25.

12  Paul Kersey and James Hohman, “Oakland County Gives Local Governments Something to Shoot For” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2010), http://www.mackinac.org/13343 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

13  Tom Eaton, personal interview with Paul Kersey, June 16, 2010.

14  Ibid.

15  Ibid.

16  Ibid.

17  Paul Kersey and James Hohman, “Oakland County Gives Local Governments Something to Shoot For” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2010), http://www.mackinac.org/13343 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

18  Oakland County Department of Management and Budget, Fiscal Services Division, "Oakland County, Michigan: Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2009" (County of Oakland, 2009), 11, http://www.michigan.gov/documents/treasury/630000OaklandCo 20100325revised_326966_7.pdf (accessed Feb. 11, 2011).

19  Louis Schimmel, Warren Executive Administrator, interview with Paul Kersey, June 4, 2010.

20  Author’s calculations based on Barry Hirsch and David Macpherson, “State: Union Membership, Coverage, Density, and Employment by State and Sector, 1983-2010” (Unionstats.com, 2010), http://unionstats.gsu.edu/ State_U_2010.xlsx (accessed Feb. 14, 2011).

21  Chicago Teachers Union v. Hudson, 475 U. S. 292 (1986).

22  Author’s calculations based on National Education Association-Michigan Education Association-Local Association Section E-1 2001-02 Service Fee Election Form and National Education Association-Michigan Education Association Section E-1 2007-08 Service Fee Election Form.

23  Paul Kersey, “Michigan’s Public Employment Relations Act: Public-Sector Labor Law and Its Consequences” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2009), 7-9, http://www.mackinac.org/10911 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

24  Ibid., 9-11.

25  Paul Kersey, “Lansing Proposes, the MEA Disposes,” The Detroit News, Feb. 4, 2010, http://www.mackinac.org/12095 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

26  Tim Gladney, “Earning High Marks for Privatization in Pinckney” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1997), http://www.mackinac.org/609 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011); see also “MEA Hypocritical on Privatization” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1999), http://www.mackinac.org/9401 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

27  PA 112 of 1994, MCL § 423.215(3)(f).

28  James Hohman and Dustin Anderson, “Michigan Schools Contract Out More Than Ever” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2010), http://www.mackinac.org/13530 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

29  MCL § 38.71 et seq. See also Ken Braun, “Many Senators Refuse to Stand Against ‘Ineffective Teachers,’” Michigan Capitol Confidential, March 10, 2010, http://www.michcapcon.com/12308 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011); see also Michael Van Beek, “How to Remove an Ineffective Tenured Teacher in 13 Easy Steps” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2010), http://www.mackinac.org/11898 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

30  James Hohman, “Bringing Balance to Public Benefits” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2011), http://www.mackinac.org/14271 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

31  Michael Van Beek, “Most School Health Care Plans Are Too Expensive for Michigan” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2010), http://www.mackinac.org/12083 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

32  Michael LaFaive and James Porterfield, “Health Savings Accounts Can Save Michigan Money” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, June 30, 2009), http://www.mackinac.org/10731 (accessed Feb. 12, 2011); Jack McHugh and Janet Neilson, “Dillon Insurance Plan Could Generate Monumental Reform” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Oct. 5, 2009), http://www.mackinac.org/ 11071 (accessed Feb. 12, 2011).

33  Richard Dreyfuss, “Michigan’s Public-Employee Retirement Benefits: Benchmarking and Managing Benefits and Costs” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2010), 3, http://www.mackinac.org/13862 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

34  Ibid., 8-10.

35  “The Public Employment Relations Act: Conflicts and Possible Alternatives” (Citizens Research Council of Michigan, 1987), 1, http://www.mml.org/advocacy/pa312/publications/crc_report-pa312.pdf (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

36  Paul Kersey, “Michigan’s Public Employment Relations Act: Public-Sector Labor Law and Its Consequences” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2009), 10, http://www.mackinac.org/10911 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

37  “The Public Employment Relations Act: Conflicts and Possible Alternatives” (Citizens Research Council of Michigan, 1987), 1-2, http://www.mml.org/advocacy/pa312/publications/crc_report-pa312.pdf (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

38  29 USC § 158(d).

39  29 USC § 163 et seq. While there is no explicit authorization for lockouts under the National Labor Relations Act, the National Labor Relations Board has allowed employers to withhold work from employees as a means of putting economic pressure on workers during the course of negotiations. For a discussion of this topic, see Patrick Hardin and John E. Higgins, The Developing Labor Law Fourth Ed., Vol. II, 1511-1543 (Bureau of National Affairs, 2001).

40  MCL § 423.202.

41  MCL § 423.207, MCL § 423.207a.

42  MCL § 423.231-247.

43 “Classes Resume After Detroit Teachers End Illegal Strike,” Michigan Education Digest, Sept. 19, 2006, http://www.educationreport.org/pubs/ mer/article.aspx?id=7934 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

44  “MESSA an Issue in Contract Talks,” Michigan Education Digest, Dec. 22, 2008, http://www.educationreport.org/pubs/mer/article.aspx?id=10096 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011); Paul Kersey, “Why School Districts Can’t Save on Health Care” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2004), http://www.mackinac. org/6053 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011); Andrew Bockelman and Joseph Overton, “Michigan Education Special Services Association: The MEA’s Money Machine” (Mackinac Center, 1993), 39-41, http://www.mackinac.org/8 (accessed Feb. 14, 2011).

45  MCL § 423.202a.

46  The Task Force on Local Government Services and Fiscal Stability, “Final Report to the Governor” (State of Michigan, 2006), 31, http://www.michigan. gov/documents/FINAL_Task_Force_Report_5_23_164361_7.pdf (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

47  Paul Kersey, “The Arbitration Gamble” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2007), http://www.mackinac.org/8326 (accessed Feb. 10, 2001); Paul Kersey, “Proposal 3: Establishing a Constitutional Requirement Extending Mandatory Collective Bargaining and Binding Arbitration to State Government Employees” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2002), 4, http://www.mackinac.org/archives/2002/s2002-04.pdf (accessed Feb. 14, 2011).

48  MCL § 141.1213, MCL § 141.1218.

49  MCL § 141.1221.

50  Paul Kersey, “The EFCA Rodeo” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Aug. 3, 2009), http://www.mackinac.org/10842 (accessed Feb. 12, 2011).

51  Paul Kersey, “Michigan’s Public Employment Relations Act: Public-Sector Labor Law and Its Consequences” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2009), 11-15, http://www.mackinac.org/10911 (accessed Feb. 10, 2011).

52  441 U.S. 463 (1979).

53  Mich Const Art 4, § 48