Source: Digest of Education Statistics 2004, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education
A proposal likely to appear on the November
ballot would change Michigan law to mandate annual inflationary education
expenditures. But the results of government education spending over the last
several decades have shown little that would lead us to think simply spending
more would improve schools. In large part, this is because schools generally
operate without significant institutional incentives for producing improved
Consider this: In what service sector have
inputs more than doubled over three decades, while outputs have remained
stagnant? If you answered, "Public education," go to the head of the class.
Our educational institutions usually do not create incentives for instructional improvement by rewarding effective teachers and sanctioning ineffective ones.
In both Michigan and the nation at large, the
amount spent per student in public education has more than doubled since 1970,
even after inflation is factored out. Compare that doubling of expenditure to
students’ performance on the federally administered National Assessment of
Educational Progress. The most recent average reading and mathematics scores on
that test are virtually identical to the scores in the early 1970s.
Student achievement has remained stagnant or
slightly worsened by other measures, too, including achievement gaps, graduation
rates, Scholastic Assessment Test results and international test scores,
according to Harvard Professor Paul E. Peterson and education researcher Herbert
However, following the logic of
the proponents of this spending mandate, Michigan citizens should disregard the
relationship between more money and unchanged results. Is this reasonable?
Simple observations of the market reveal that firms strive to create value by
keeping costs low, while simultaneously increasing the quality and quantity of
the goods or services demanded by consumers.
The contention that these
fundamental principles don’t work in government schools has long been discussed
by education policy scholars such as Eric Hanushek, who found a decade ago that
education sector productivity, or the ratio of outputs to inputs, "is falling at
3.5 percent per year relative to low productivity sectors of the economy."
Such a finding appears contrary to common
sense, since our experience tells us that having more money makes individuals’
lives better than having less money does.
Based on this perception, many people seem to
believe that the worst performing schools are those spending the least per
student. But this is not the case. Take, for example, the 117 Michigan public
schools that have failed to meet federal and state standards under the No Child
Left Behind Act for five or more consecutive years. Calculations based on
recently released data from the Michigan Department of Education show that 89
percent of those consistently failing schools are in districts that rank in the
top quarter of all districts in terms of per-pupil expenditures for operations.
A primary reason for this disparity between
spending and achievement is the relatively weak incentives for schools to
improve, a problem researched by Hanushek and others.
One vital area of education that lacks
meaningful improvement incentives is instruction, an area of operations that
accounts for more than half of all education spending. Instruction of students,
a school’s primary mission, is an activity that takes place largely in
classrooms with teachers. Teachers’ pay is usually based on a "uniform salary
schedule" that gives raises according to increasing years of employment and the
highest educational degree attained, as noted by a recent Harvard University
study of collective bargaining.
Since the mid-1980s, median teaching
experience has hovered at about 15 years. Moreover, from 1961 to 2001, the
percentage of teachers with master’s degrees increased from about 23 percent to
56 percent. This means that public education employers are maintaining an
"experienced," highly educated workforce, even though their spending on labor is
hardly ever connected to outcomes.
In other words, our educational institutions
usually do not create incentives for instructional improvement by rewarding
effective teachers and sanctioning ineffective ones, even though the
effectiveness of teaching in the classroom is the most important factor in
The fact that measures of educational results
have been stagnant or even slightly declining over the past several decades
ought to alert Michigan citizens that simply hiking school spending – as we’ve
already been doing for decades – will do nothing by itself to improve learning
for Michigan’s children. In fact, increased spending distracts us from
addressing the lack of incentives for public schools to fulfill their most vital mission: the quality instruction of students.
Ryan S. Olson
is director of education policy at the Mackinac Center for Public Policy, a
research and educational institute headquartered in Midland, Mich.
Permission to reprint in whole or in part is hereby granted, provided that the
author and the Center are properly cited.