1 Michigan Const. 1963, Art. XII, § 1.

2 Id. at Art. X, § 2.

3 Wayne County v. Hathcock, 471 Mich. 445 (2004).

4 The definition of a "principal residence" in the Michigan General Property Tax Act can be found at MCL 211.7dd(c).

5 Poletown Neighborhood Council v. Detroit, 410 Mich. 616 (1981).

6 Hathcock, 471 Mich. at 473 (citations omitted).

7 Id. at 474.

8 Id. at 475 (citations omitted).

9 MCL 213.56(2).

10 R. Rutland et al, eds., For the National Gazette, Property (1983), 266, reprinted in 14 Papers of James Madison.

11 Calder v. Bull, 3 Dall. 386, 388, 1 L.Ed. 648 (1798).

12 Vanhorne’s Lessee v. Dorrance, 2 Dall. 304, 1 L.Ed. 391 (C.C.D.Pa.1795).

13 Norwood v. Horney, 583 N.E.2d 1115, 1132 (Ohio 2006).

14 Barron v. Baltimore, 32 U.S. 243 (1833).

15 Missouri Pacific Ry. Co. v. Nebraska, 164 U.S. 403 (1896).

16 Clark v. Nash, 198 U.S. 361 (1905).

17 Strickley v. Highland Boy Gold Mining Co., 200 U.S. 527 (1906).

18 Berman v. Parker, 348 U.S. 26 (1954).

19 Id. at 33-34 (citations omitted).

20 Hawaii Hous. Auth. v. Midkiff, 467 U.S. 229 (1984).

21 Midkiff, 467 U.S. at 232.

22 Kelo v. New London, 545 U.S. 469; 125 S.Ct 2655 (2005).

23 Id. at 2665 n. 13 (citation omitted).

24 Id. at 2676 (O’Connor, J., dissenting).

25 Id. at 2677 (O’Connor, J., dissenting).

26 Id. at 2668.

27 Id. at 2668 n. 22.

28 Poletown Neighborhood Council v. Detroit, 410 Mich. 616 (1981).

29 Jenny Nolan, "Auto Plant vs. Neighborhood: The Poletown Battle," The Detroit News Rearview Mirror, http://info.detnews.com/history/story/index.cfm?id=18&category=business (accessed September 22, 2006).

30 Poletown, 410 Mich. at 647 (Ryan, J., dissenting).

31 Id. at 633-34.

32 Id. at 644-45 (Fitzgerald, J., dissenting).

33 Hathcock, 471 Mich. at 450.

34 Id. at 482.

35 Id. at 473 (citation omitted).

36 Id. at 474.

37 Id. at 475 (citation omitted).

38 Berman, 348 U.S. at 34-35.

39 Id. at 32.

40 Midkiff, 467 U.S. at 241-43 (citations omitted).

41 Kelo, 125 S.Ct. at 2661-63 (citations omitted).

42 Id. at 2670 (Kennedy, J., concurring).

43 Id. at 2671 (Kennedy, J., concurring).

44 Id. at 2670 (Kennedy, J., concurring).

45 Poletown, 410 Mich. at 628-33 (some citations omitted).

46 Calder, 3 Dall. at 388.

47 Id.

48 Vanhorne’s Lessee v. Dorrance, 2 Dall. 304, 1 L.Ed. 391 (C.C.D.Pa.1795).

49 Hathcock, 471 Mich. at 480 n. 81 (citing Poletown, 410 Mich at 668 (Ryan, J., dissenting)).

50 Id. at 479.

51 Id. at 480.

52 Id. at 482.

53 Id. at 483.

54 Horney, 583 N.E.2d at 1123.

55 Id. at 1128 (citation omitted).

56 Id. at 1136.

57 Id. at 1138.

58 Kelo, 125 S.Ct. at 2675 (O’Connor, J., dissenting).

59 Id.

60 Ilya Somin, "Robin Hood in Reverse: The Case Against Economic Development Takings," Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 535 (Washington, DC: Cato Institute, February 22, 2005), 6, http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa535.pdf (accessed September 18, 2006).

61 Marbury v. Madison, 1 Cranch 137, 177, 2 L.Ed. 60 (1803).

62 Berman, 348 U.S. at 32.

63 Kelo, 125 S.Ct. at 2684 (Thomas, J., dissenting).

64 Id. at 2670 (Kennedy, J., concurring).

65 James Madison, "The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection," The Federalist Papers No. 10, (November 23, 1787) http://thomas.loc.gov/home/histdox/fed_10.html (accessed September 26, 2006).

66 Id.

67 Id.

68 Id.

69 "Primary Documents in American History: The Bill of Rights,"

The Library of Congress: Collections and Bibliographies, http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/billofrights.html (accessed September 27, 2006).

70 Kelo, 125 S.Ct. at 2686-87 (Thomas, J., dissenting) (citation omitted).

71 Id. at 2687 (Thomas, J., dissenting) (citing Pritchett, The "Public Menace" of Blight: Urban Renewal and the Private Uses of Eminent Domain, 21 Yale L. & Pol’y Rev. 1, 47 (2003) (other citations omitted)).

72 Brief of Jane Jacobs as Amica Curiae in Support of Petitioners, Kelo v. New London, at 12, http://www.ij.org/pdf_folder/private_property/kelo/jacobs05.pdf (accessed October 3, 2006) (hereafter cited as Brief of Jane Jacobs).

73 Kelo, 125 S.Ct. at 2676 (O’Connor, J., dissenting).

74 Hathcock, 471 Mich. at 482.

75 Brief of Jane Jacobs at 13.

76 Poletown, 410 Mich. at 657 n. 7 (Ryan, J., dissenting).

77 Brief of Jane Jacobs at 8.

78 Somin, "Robin Hood," 6.

79 Poletown, 410 Mich. at 653 n. 6 (Ryan, J., dissenting).

80 Brief of Jane Jacobs at 8.

81 Bruce L. Benson, "The Mythology of Holdout as Justification for Eminent Domain and Public Provision of Roads," TheIndependent Review Volume X, Number 2, (Oakland, CA: The Independent Institute, Fall 2005), 165, http://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_10_2_1_benson.pdf (accessed October 4, 2006).

82 MCL 125.72(a).

83 Horney, 853 N.E.2d at 1145.

84 Shikha Dalmia, "Blight loophole could allow cities to grab homes,

land," The Detroit News, November 3, 2005, http://www.detnews.com/2005/editorial/0511/03/A19-370418.htm (accessed September 29, 2006); Dana Berliner, Opening the Floodgates: Eminent Domain Abuse in the Post-Kelo World, "Michigan," (Washington, DC: Institute for Justice, Castle Coalition, June 2006), 52-53, http://www.castlecoalition.org/pdf/publications/floodgates-report-low.pdf (accessed October 4, 2006).

85 Text of Proposal taken from "State Of Michigan Statewide Ballot Proposal Status," (Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of State, September 20, 2006), 4, http://www.michigan.gov/documents/Statewide_Bal_Prop_Status_145801_7.pdf# search=%22east%20lansing%20blight%20designation%22.