1Herbert Stein, Presidential Economics: The Making of Economic Policy from Roosevelt to Clinton (Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, 1994), p. 190.

2See David Schoenbrod, Power Without Responsibility: How Congress Abuses the People Through Delegation (Yale University Press, 1993).

3Martin W. Lewis, Green Delusions: An Environmentalist Critique of Radical Environmentalism (Duke University Press, 1992), pp. 2-3.

4Edward Goldsmith, et al., A Blueprint for Survival (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972), p. 50.

5Martin Ryle, Ecology and Socialism (London: Radius, 1988), p. 60.

6Mark Dowie, Losing Ground: American Environmentalism at the Close of the Twentieth Century (MIT Press, 1996).

7Quoted in Ibid., p. 106.

8Lewis, pp. 6, 9.

9For an extreme expression of this point of view, see Jane Holtz Kay, Asphalt Nation: How the Automobile Took Over America and How We Can Take It Back (New York: Crown Books, 1997), p. 24. See also James Q. Wilson, "Cars and Their Enemies," Commentary, July 1997, pp. 17-23 and James A. Dunn, Jr., Driving Forces: The Automobile, Its Enemies, and the Politics of Mobility (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1998).

10Foundation for Clean Air Progress, available at http://www.cleanairprogress.org/survey/answers.cfm.

11Environmental Protection Agency, National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1997 (Research Triangle Park, NC: Air Quality Trends Analysis Group, 1998), p. 9.

12Ibid., p. 9.

13"Progress in Reducing Ozone Exceedance Days in Ten Major U.S. Cities, 1987-1999," prepared for the Foundation for Clean Air Progress, Washington, D.C., by Tech Environmental, Inc., Waltham, MA, October 1999.

14Council on Environmental Quality, Environmental Quality, 25th Anniversary Report (Washington, D.C.: The Executive Office of the President, 1995), p.184.

15Goklany, p. 65, and D. Brown, "Lead Level in Americans' Blood Has Fallen 75% Since the Late '70's," Washington Post, July 27, 1994.

16Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, 1991).

17Indur M. Goklany, Clearing the Air: The Real Story of the War on Air Pollution (Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 1999).

18Goklany, pp. 21-22.

19Goklany, p. 21.

20Paul R. Portney, "Air Pollution Regulation," in Paul R. Portney, editor, Public Policies for Environmental Protection (Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, 1990), p. 40.

21Goklany, p. 56.


23OECD Economic Surveys - United States (ISSN: 0474-5329, November 1991).

24Goklany, p. 43, and EPA, Report to Congress on Indoor Air Quality Volume II: Assessment and Control of Air Pollution, Office of Air and Radiation, EPA/400/1-89/001C, 1989.

25Goklany, p. 44; Lance Wallace, "A Decade of Studies of Human Exposure: What Have We Learned?" Risk Analysis 13, April 1993; and Wayne Ott and John Roberts, "Everyday Exposure to Toxic Pollutants," Scientific American, February 1998.

26Goklany, p. 44, and Kirk R. Smith, "Fuel Combustion, Air Pollution Exposure, and Health: The Situation in Developing Countries," Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 18, 1993.

27Goklany, p. 44.

28Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility, Murky Waters: Official Water Quality Reports Are All Wet, May 1999, p. 28.

29Ibid., p. 38.

30Ibid., p.14.

31Ibid., Table 2.

32Ibid., p. 17.

33U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, For the Health of a River: The Story of the Tar River in Eastern North Carolina, 1994. For more information contact the Center for Policy and Legal Studies, Clemson University.



36U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, About the Upper Mississippi River System. Available at http://www.umesc.usgs.gov/umesc_about/about_umrs.html.

37U.S. Geological Survey, "Ecological Status and Trends of the Upper Mississippi River System," 1998, p. 5-5.

38Tom Meersman, Star Tribune Special: "The Minnesota River in Crisis," December 1999.

39R. A. Smith, G. E. Schwarz, and R. B. Alexander, Regional Estimates of the Amount of Land Located in Watersheds with Poor Water Quality, U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 94-399.

40Meersman, December 1999.

41Bill Cooper, State of the Great Lakes 1993 Annual Report, April 1994.

42For more on the concept of "civic environmentalism," see www.civicenvironmentalism.org.

43The median size house lot for single-family homes is .35 acres, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.

44Assumes one acre of street is needed for each acre of residential housing.

45Author's calculations based on data about miles of roads constructed from Highway Statistics, Federal Highway Administration.

46F.W. Dodge/McGraw Hill, as reported in 1998 Statistical Abstract of the United States, Table No. 1195. This data includes schools and other public sector construction.

47Estimate assumes a 5:1 ratio of parking space and landscaping to floor area.

48U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Outlook (Washington D.C.: Economic Research Service, 1987).

49Frederick R. Troeh, J. Arthur Hobbs, and Roy L. Donahue, Soil and Water Conservation (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, second edition, 1991), p. 115.

50Marlow Vesterby, Ralph E. Heimlich, and Kenneth E. Krupa, "Urbanization of Rural Land in America," USDA, Economic Research Service, Agricultural Economic Report 673, March 1994.

51EPA, 1997 Toxics Release Inventory, pp. 4-14.

521997 TRI, p. 1-6. For a more complete discussion of the TRI, see Volokh, Green, and Scarlett, "The Toxics Release Inventory, Stakeholder Participation, and the Right to Know," Reason Public Policy Institute, Policy Study #246, available at www.rppi.org/righttoknow.html.

53George Gray, "Forget Chemical Use, Let's Report Risk," Risk in Perspective, (Cambridge: Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Vol. 4, No. 4, April 1997), p. 1.

54Timothy O' Riordan, "The Politics of Sustainability," in R.K. Turner, ed., Sustainable Environmental Management: Principles and Practice (London: Belhaven Press, 1988), p. 29.

55The deforestation rate of the Amazon rainforests, which had been averaging 1.2 percent a year in the 1980s, is showing signs of slowing down, in large part because of increased consciousness about the folly of deforestation and changes in policies that encourage deforestation.

56World Bank environmental consultant John Pezzey comments, "Environmental policy is all about internalizing externalities; and internalizing externalities usually amounts to establishing some kind of property rights over the environment."; Sustainable Development Concepts: An Economic Analysis (Washington, D.C.: World Bank Environmental Paper Number 2, 1992), p. 30.

57Economist R. Kerry Turner comments: "It makes no sense to talk about the sustainable use of a non-renewable resource (even with substantial recycling effort and reuse rates). Any positive rate of exploitation will eventually lead to exhaustion of the finite stock." Turner, "Sustainability, Resource Conservation and Pollution Control: An Overview," in R.K. Turner, ed., Sustainable Environmental Management: Principles and Practice (London: Belhaven Press, 1988), p. 13.

58Martin Lewis, Green Delusions, pp. 143-44.

59Landfills are already rapidly becoming obsolete as recycling and materials recovery processes mature. Some of our current recycling mandates and practices are proving to be an impediment to this favorable development.

60Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970 (U.S. Census Bureau, 1975), Series S-4, p. 818; Series P-362, p. 702.

61Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970 (U.S. Census Bureau, 1975), Series K-498, p. 510.

62Indeed, transnational research on the issue of economic development and environmental quality validates the view that while emerging economies suffer deteriorating environmental quality for a time as industrial output increases, environmental quality begins to improve as net wealth increases beyond a certain point. This has been labeled the "J-curve" phenomenon. Moreover, this "wealth effect" provides the basis of broad popular support for environmental improvement; as a people become wealthier, their demand for environmental improvement increases. See Don Coursey, "The Demand for Environmental Quality," Working Paper, Business, Law, and Economics Center, Washington University, 1992.

63Fossil fuel energy development might actually lead to improvements in air quality in the short run if it leads to a reduction in the use of wood, cow dung, and other inefficient and highly polluting fuel sources. See Gregg Easterbrook, "Forget PCBs, Radon, Alar: The World's Greatest Environmental Dangers Are Dung Smoke and Dirty Water," New York Times Magazine, September 11, 1994, pp. 60-63.

64"Economists are rightly wary of believing that such opportunities can exist . . . . The few studies of links between environmental compliance costs and productivity suggest that such wariness is fully justified." "When Green Is Good," The Economist, November 20, 1993, p. 19.

65Dimensions of this kind of practice, and several case studies, are detailed by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, available at http://www.wbcsd.ck.

66H.S. Burness and R.G. Cummings, "Thermodynamic and Economic Concepts as Related to Resource Use Policies: A Reply," Land Economics Vol. 62, no. 3 (1986), p. 323.

67The UN World Commission on Environment and Development was emphatically not among this camp. It called for economic growth as central to any strategy of sustainability.

68Goklany's complete algebraic analysis of this topic can be found in Clearing the Air, pp. 69-73; also in Goklany's unpublished paper, "The Future of the Industrial System," prepared for the International Conference on Industrial Ecology and Sustainability, Troyes, France, September 22-25, 1999.

69Goklany, "The Future of the Industrial System," p. 21.

70Peter Huber, Hard Green: Saving the Environment from the Environmentalists (A Conservative Manifesto) (New York: Basic Books, 2000). See also Marian R. Chertow and Daniel C. Esty, eds., Thinking Ecologically: The Next Generation of Environmental Policy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997).