Criminal law is the foundation on which all elements of a criminal justice system rest. It determines what behavior is outlawed so that citizens are put on notice and so that police officers know when to make arrests. It sets different penalties for crimes so judges know how to punish offenders and the corrections department knows how long to incarcerate them. It is also layered: Each jurisdiction with a governing body can and typically does enact its own criminal laws. Congress creates federal laws, the Michigan Legislature enacts state-level crimes and local municipalities institute ordinances. This section will deal with state-level and municipal-level criminal law, describing the legislative process for enacting crimes and explaining the characteristics of crimes and civil infractions.