1 Jennifer Granholm, “Michigan: Jobs Today - Jobs Tomorrow” (State of Michigan, Feb. 8, 2005), https://perma.cc/FAG6-YR4L.

2 Elizabeth Pratt and Maria Tyszkiewicz, “Jobs for Michigan Fund S.B. 488: Committee Summary” (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, May 12, 2005), https://perma.cc/5Z43-ACNX.

3 Jennifer Granholm, “Michigan: Jobs Today - Jobs Tomorrow” (State of Michigan, Feb. 8, 2005), https://perma.cc/FAG6-YR4L.

4 Elizabeth Pratt and Maria Tyszkiewicz, “Jobs for Michigan Fund S.B. 488: Committee Summary” (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, May 12, 2005), https://perma.cc/5Z43-ACNX.

5 Ibid.

6 “Senate Bill 488” (State of Michigan, May 10, 2005), https://perma.cc/9P2A-J4X3.

7 “State of Michigan Revenue Source and Distribution” (Michigan House Fiscal Agency, March 2005), 8, https://perma.cc/6MJB-83D6.

8 Mich. Const. Art. IX, Sec. 15.

9 “Senate Joint Resolution C” (State of Michigan, May 10, 2005), https://perma.cc/7D9X-P3WF.

10 Ibid.

11 Chris Couch and Richard Child, “Legislative Analysis: 21st Century Jobs” (Michigan House Fiscal Agency, Oct. 10, 2005), https://perma.cc/8DQS-GFWH.

12 Elizabeth Pratt and Maria Tyszkiewicz, “21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Programs” (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, Feb. 2007), https://perma.cc/5JB5-KQ7L.

13 Kyle I. Jen, “Memorandum: Tobacco Settlement Funds” (Michigan House Fiscal Agency, Dec. 11, 2013), https://perma.cc/E4KA-D47G.

14 Mich. Const. Art. IX, Sec. 19.

15 Burton W. Folsom, “An Economic Lesson From Michigan’s Early History” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Dec. 9, 1996), https://perma.cc/CEK8-AP3E.

16 Mike Cox, “Opinion No. 7195” (State of Michigan, July 19, 2006), https://perma.cc/63UF-DZK7.

17 Ibid.

18 Author’s calculations based on a review of MCL § 125.2088 – 125.2088r.

19 “Senate Bill 488” (State of Michigan, May 10, 2005), https://perma.cc/9P2A-J4X3.

20 Elizabeth Pratt, Maria Tyszkiewicz and Jay Wortley, “Economic Development Proposal” (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, Nov. 16, 2005), https://perma.cc/6DXU-SMJR.

21 “House Bill No. 5047” (State of Michigan, July 6, 2005), https://perma.cc/3HFL-2Z8C.

22 Ibid.; “Senate Bill 488” (State of Michigan, May 10, 2005), https://perma.cc/9P2A-J4X3.

23 MCL § 324.50501.

24 “2005 House Bill 5047: Create ‘21st Century Jobs Fund’” (MichiganVotes.org, 2005), https://perma.cc/2L3F-86GJ.

25 Elizabeth Pratt, Maria Tyszkiewicz and Jay Wortley, “Economic Development Proposal” (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, Nov. 16, 2005), 3, https://perma.cc/6DXU-SMJR.

26 Ibid., 1-2.

27 Jennifer Granholm, “Executive Order No. 2007-3” (State of Michigan, March 22, 2007), 18, https://perma.cc/F9F8-N4L4.

28 “Public Act 50 of 2007” (State of Michigan, Aug. 13, 2007), https://perma.cc/97PG-4PFE.

29 Elizabeth Pratt and Maria Tyszkiewicz, “State Notes: 21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Programs” (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, 2008), 2, https://perma.cc/968L-B42L.

30 MCL § 125.2088h.

31 “Selected Examples of Completed Projects” (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2009), https://perma.cc/VTM3-YBFG.

32 “Research Competitiveness Program” (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2016), https://perma.cc/VJ95-23BH.

33 “Michigan Stragetic Fund 2006 Minutes” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation), March 22, 2006, https://perma.cc/P8J5-R445.

34 “Michigan Stragetic Fund 2006 Minutes” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation), Sept. 27, 2006, https://perma.cc/P8J5-R445.

35 “21st Century Jobs Fund Program: Year-End Report to the Legislature for Fiscal Year 2007” (Michigan Economic Development Corporation, 2007), https://perma.cc/F9F8-EK2T.

36 “Michigan Stragetic Fund 2006 Minutes” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation), June 7, 2006, https://perma.cc/P8J5-R445.

37 “21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Program: Year-End Report to the Legislature for Fiscal Year 2010” (Michigan Economic Development Corporation, 2010), https://perma.cc/DQP7-KP6V.

38 “21st Century Jobs Fund Program: Year-End Report to the Legislature for Fiscal Year 2007” (Michigan Economic Development Corporation, 2007), 4, https://perma.cc/F9F8-EK2T.

39 “21st Century Jobs Fund Program: Year-End Report to the Legislature for Fiscal Year 2007” (Michigan Economic Development Corporation, 2007), https://perma.cc/F9F8-EK2T; “Michigan Strategic Fund Board Adopted Meeting Minutes” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation, Dec. 16, 2009), https://perma.cc/9XVX-QQR7.

40 Aaron Smith, “Pfizer to Cut 10,000 Jobs, Shut 5 Plants,” CNNMoney.com (CNN, Jan. 22, 2007), https://perma.cc/2TJX-GHY8.

41 “Michigan Strategic Fund 2007 Minutes” (Michigan Economic Development Corporation, 2007), May 8, 2007, https://perma.cc/X7DL-ZHQJ.

42 “21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Program: Year-End Report to the Legislature for Fiscal Year 2010” (Michigan Economic Development Corporation, 2010), https://perma.cc/DQP7-KP6V.

43 Ibid.

44 Ibid.

45 Alex Nixon, “Ex-Pfizer Inc. Workers May Be Slipping Away,” Kalamazoo Gazette, June 21, 2009, https://perma.cc/9CAW-TPE6.

46 “Michigan Strategic Fund Act Annual Report to the Legislature” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation, 2016), 72, https://perma.cc/A92V-VAMW.

47 “Annual Report of the Office of the Chief Compliance Officer” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation, 2008), https://perma.cc/WK7Q-GRB7.

48 Ibid.

49 “21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Program: Year-End Report to the Legislature for Fiscal Year 2010” (Michigan Economic Development Corporation, 2010), https://perma.cc/DQP7-KP6V.

50 “2008 Senate Bill 1380: Authorize $40 Million in Energy Technology Business Subsidies” (MichiganVotes.org, 2008), https://perma.cc/C8GH-TML5.

51 “Energy Centers Bill Signed” (Gongwer News Service, July 8, 2008).

52 “$12M Auto Supplier Loan Program Launched,” Michigan Information & Research Service, May 20, 2009; “Michigan Strategic Fund Act Annual Report to the Legislature” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation, 2016), 29, https://perma.cc/A92V-VAMW.

53 “21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Program: Year-End Report to the Legislature for Fiscal Year 2010” (Michigan Economic Development Corporation, 2010), https://perma.cc/DQP7-KP6V.

54 Ibid.

55 “21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Program Year-End Report to the Legislature” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation, April 1, 2013), https://perma.cc/37EY-5AW9.

56 “MSF Freezes COEE Applications,” MIRS Capital Capsule (Michigan Information & Research Service, July 28, 2010).

57 Jennifer M Granholm, “Executive Order No. 2010 - 8” (State of Michigan, Aug. 18, 2010), https://perma.cc/G49A-684M.

58 “Public Act 22 of 2011” (State of Michigan, April 26, 2011), https://perma.cc/F3LV-FMEB.

59 “Public Act 250 of 2011” (State of Michigan, Dec. 13, 2011), https://perma.cc/S578-HCKH.

60 “Appropriations Summary and Analysis” (Michigan House Fiscal Agency, Aug. 2011), 52, https://perma.cc/U79F-UJDY.

61 “21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Program Year-End Report to the Legislature” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation, April 1, 2013), https://perma.cc/37EY-5AW9.

62 Ibid.

63 “21st Century Jobs Number Tops 1,000,” MIRS Capital Capsule (Michigan Information & Research Service, April 27, 2010).

64 “2005 House Bill 5047: Create ‘21st Century Jobs Fund’” (MichiganVotes.org, 2005), https://perma.cc/2L3F-86GJ.

65 “Casperson Launches Bid for Congress,” The Daily News (Iron Mountain, Nov. 9, 2015), https://perma.cc/EN73-UXRL.

66 “Securitization In, Tax Plan Out,” MIRS Capital Capsule (Michigan Information & Research Service, Nov. 21, 2005).

67 Joe Carrasco, “Detailed Decision Document” (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, June 6, 2016), 33, https://perma.cc/GB5P-NUX3.

68 Ibid.

69 “Only 8% of $400M 21st Century Money Left,” MIRS Capital Capsule (Michigan Information & Research Service, Nov. 1, 2006).

70 Elizabeth Pratt and Maria Tyszkiewicz, “Centers of Energy Excellence” (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, Jan. 27, 2009), 2, https://perma.cc/D6LJ-S8TM.

71 “Public Act 225 of 2005” (State of Michigan, Nov. 21, 2005), 11, https://perma.cc/7E38-BHXJ.

72 MCL § 125.2009(2)-(3).

73 “About the Office of the Auditor General” (Office of the Auditor General, 2016), https://perma.cc/REY4-X6JK.

74 MCL § 125.2088n; “Public Act 453 of 2014” (State of Michigan, Dec. 27, 2014), https://perma.cc/W2DQ-PRJX.

75 “Public Act 215 of 2005” (State of Michigan, Nov. 21, 2005), https://perma.cc/L29U-7B86.

76 MCL § 125.2009(1)(a)–(h).

77 MCL § 125.2009(4)(a)–(c).

78 “Michigan Strategic Fund Act Annual Report to the Legislature” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation, 2016), 72, https://perma.cc/A92V-VAMW.

79 Ibid., 52.

80 Ibid.

81 “21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Program Year-End Report to the Legislature” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation, April 1, 2013), https://perma.cc/37EY-5AW9.

82 “Public Act 215 of 2005” (State of Michigan, Nov. 21, 2005), https://perma.cc/L29U-7B86; “Michigan Strategic Fund Act Annual Report to the Legislature” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation, 2016), https://perma.cc/A92V-VAMW.

83 “Michigan Strategic Fund Board Adopted Meeting Minutes” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation, Dec. 16, 2009), https://perma.cc/9XVX-QQR7.

84 Thomas H. McTavish, “Performance Audit of the 21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Programs” (Michigan Office of the Auditor General, Sept. 2013), 27, https://perma.cc/ZA7F-GHB2.

85 “21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Program: Year-End Report to the Legislature” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation, April 1, 2015), https://perma.cc/Y373-RQHH.

86 Thomas H. McTavish, “Performance Audit of the 21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Programs” (Michigan Office of the Auditor General, Oct. 2010), https://perma.cc/2GPQ-QR57.

87 Ibid., 24-25; Thomas H. McTavish, “Performance Audit of the 21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Programs” (Michigan Office of the Auditor General, Sept. 2013), 24–28, https://perma.cc/ZA7F-GHB2.

88 “Senate Bill 488” (State of Michigan, May 10, 2005), https://perma.cc/9P2A-J4X3.

89 “Gross Domestic Product by State” (Bureau of Economic Analysis), https://perma.cc/K2Z6-ZT9Q.

90 Author’s calculations based “21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Program: Year-End Report to the Legislature” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation, April 1, 2015), https://perma.cc/Y373-RQHH; “Business Employment Dynamics Data by States” (Bureau of Labor Statistics, Aug. 18, 2016), https://perma.cc/S8XV-6BUX.

91 Jennifer Granholm, “Michigan: Jobs Today - Jobs Tomorrow” (State of Michigan, Feb. 8, 2005), https://perma.cc/FAG6-YR4L.

92 Author’s calculations based on “21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Program: Year-End Report to the Legislature” (Michigan Economic Developement Corporation, April 1, 2015), https://perma.cc/Y373-RQHH; “Business Employment Dynamics Data by States” (Bureau of Labor Statistics, Aug. 18, 2016), https://perma.cc/S8XV-6BUX.

93 “21st Century Jobs Number Tops 1,000,” MIRS Capital Capsule (Michigan Information & Research Service, April 27, 2010).

94 “Bishop Puts 21st Century Fund In Crosshairs,” MIRS Capital Capsule (Michigan Information & Research Service, Sept. 23, 2010).

95 “21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Program: Year-End Report to the Legislature for Fiscal Year 2010” (Michigan Economic Development Corporation, 2010), https://perma.cc/DQP7-KP6V.

96 Thomas H. McTavish, “Performance Audit of the 21st Century Jobs Trust Fund Programs” (Michigan Office of the Auditor General, Sept. 2013), 17, https://perma.cc/ZA7F-GHB2.

97 “Michigan Public School Employees’ Retirement System Annual Acturial Valuation Report” (Gabriel Roeder Smith & Company, Sept. 30, 2015), https://perma.cc/YE6Z-PEPF.

98 Author’s calculations based on “Michigan Public School Employees’ Retirement System Annual Acturial Valuation Report” (Gabriel Roeder Smith & Csompany, Sept. 30, 2015), https://perma.cc/YE6Z-PEPF.