1. 487 U. S. 735 (1988).

  2. National Survey of Union Members, The Luntz Research Companies – ABB Union Survey (Americans for a Balanced Budget), April 29, 1996.

  3. California Saw and Knife Works, 320 NLRB 224 (1995), enf’d. ___ F3d ___, Docket No. 96-1246 (Jan. 14, 1998).

  4. See e.g., Teamsters Local 738 (E.J. Brach Corp.), 324 N.L.R.B. No. 180 (1997); Laborers’ International Union, Local 265 (Fred A. Newmann Co.), 322 N.L.R.B. No. 47 (1996).

  5. Chicago Teachers Union v. Hudson, 475 U. S. 292 (1986).

  6. See National Labor Relations Board Press Release (R-2285) dated April 24, 1998.

  7. Section 10(b) of the National Labor Relations Act.

  8. Hearings on Mandatory Assessment of Union Dues, Before the Subcommittee on Employer – Employee Relations, 104th Cong., 2nd Sess., (Mar. 18, 1998, and Apr. 18, 1996).

  9. Hudson, 475 U.S. at 306.

  10. Id. at 305, 310.

  11. Id. at 309.

  12. Air Line Pilots Assoc. v. Miller, U.S. Sup. Ct., No. 97-428, May 1998.

  13. 500 U.S. 507 (1991).

  14. Lehnert v. Ferris Faculty Association, 500 U. S. 507 (1991); Abood v. Detroit Board of Education, 431 U. S. 209 (1977).

  15. 1994 PA 117; MCLA 169.255, Et. seq.

  16. Michigan State AFL-CIO v. Miller, 103 F3d 1240 (CA 6, 1997).