1 Author’s calculations based on “Public Data Sets” (Center for Educational Performance and Information), accessed Oct. 24, 2013, http://goo.gl/bGd43Z; “Public Student Counts (Headcount Data)” (Center for Educational Performance and Information), accessed Oct. 24, 2013, http://goo.gl/Uj3IKA.

2 “Pupil Membership History FY 1994-95 to FY 2014-15” (Michigan Senate Fiscal Agency, 2013), accessed Oct. 20, 2013, http://goo.gl/xOCx3.

3 “Charter School Performance in Michigan” (Stanford University: Center for Research on Education Outcomes, 2013), accessed Oct. 20, 2013, http://goo.gl/jCFOM.

4 Author’s calculations based on “Non-Resident Student Research Tool” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, 2012), accessed July 25, 2012, http://goo.gl/HdmaEU.

5 MCL §  388.1705(18); MCL § 388.1705c(18).

6 Author’s calculations based on “Non-Resident Student Research Tool” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, 2012), accessed July 25, 2012, http://goo.gl/HdmaEU. This number is the count of students categorized by MDE as “other nonresident.” It can include nonresident students who pay a school district tuition to attend.

7 Author’s calculations based on “Non-Resident Student Research Tool” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, 2012), accessed July 25, 2012, http://goo.gl/HdmaEU.

8 “Senate Bill 0851” (Michigan Senate, 1996), accessed Oct. 20, 2013, http://goo.gl/oxEt0. There are 56 ISDs in Michigan, which each ISD containing an average of 11 school districts. “Michigan Intermediate School Districts” (Washtenaw Intermediate School District, 2013), accessed Oct. 24, 2013, http://goo.gl/Qlf1u.

9 “Public Act No. 119 of 1999” (Michigan Legislature, 1999), accessed Oct. 20, 2013, http://goo.gl/Gw2xG.

10 Stephen Q. Cornman, Jumaane Young and Kenneth C. Herrell, “Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2009-10 (Fiscal Year 2010)” (National Center for Education Statistics, 2012), Table 1, accessed Oct. 25, 2013, http://goo.gl/yLXCk.

11 Andrew Lockwood, “School Finance Reform in Michigan Proposal A: Retrospective” (Michigan Office of Revenue and Tax Analysis, 2002), 3–4, accessed Oct. 21, 2013, http://goo.gl/qh1YRa.

12 For more information, see: Ryan S. Olson and Michael D. LaFaive, A Michigan School Money Primer: For Policymakers, School Officials, Media and Residents (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2007), 55–73, http://goo.gl/ZfPCXx.

13 “State Aid Foundation Allowance Parameters 1995-2013” (Michigan Department of Education, Aug. 12, 2013), accessed Oct. 24, 2013, http://goo.gl/mwkNL.

14 MCL § 388.1606(4); “2013-2014 Student Count Day and School Funding Information” (Michigan Department of Education, Aug. 30, 2013), accessed Oct. 22, 2013, http://goo.gl/EltcD.

15 MCL § 388.1606(6)(e).

16 “Public Act 465 of 2012” (Michigan Legislature, 2012), 8–9, accessed Oct. 22, 2013, http://goo.gl/0pj6R.

17 Monica Scott, “Student Count Day: Empty Desks Equal Missing Money for Michigan School Districts Wednesday,” MLive, accessed Oct. 25, 2013, http://goo.gl/M0QNcp.

18 “Schools of Choice” (Michigan Department of Education, 2009), accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/IxkSD.

19 MCL § 388.1705(2); MCL § 388.1705c(2).

20 MCL § 388.1705(2)(a).

21 MCL § 388.1705(2)(a)(i)(A),(C); MCL § 388.1705c(2)(a)(i)(A),(C).

22 Matthew Ladner and Matthew Brouillette, “The Impact of Limited School Choice on Public School Districts” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2000), 5, 17, accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/1BAiJ.

23 David Arsen, David Plank and Gary Sykes, “A Work in Progress,” Education Next 1, no. 4 (2001): 14–19, accessed Oct. 24, 2013, http://goo.gl/jF82LU.

24 “Non-Resident Student Research Tool” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, 2012),  accessed July 25, 2012, http://goo.gl/HdmaEU.

25 Marion Ginopolis, “A Tough ‘Choice’” (Lake Orion Community Schools, Apr. 1, 2013), accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/Nn9KcT.

26 Lori Maranville, “School District Planning Marketing Campaign to Attract School-of-Choice Students,” The Milan News-Leader (Heritage Newspapers, Apr. 4, 2013), accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/50vqF.

27 “Student Residency and Enrollment Eligibility Frequently Asked Questions” (Grosse Pointe Public School System: Grosse Pointe Public School System, June 14, 2008), accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/7BGqI; Diana Dillaber Murray, “Birmingham, Bloomfield Hills Schools Wary of Illegal Registration,” The Oakland Press, Feb. 4, 2011, accessed Apr. 4, 2013, http://goo.gl/BPtHJ.

28 Sara Eaton Martin, “Residency Enforcement to Be Addressed by Grosse Pointe Public Schools,” Grosse Pointe Patch, July 24, 2012, accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/X8f7x.

29 “Student Residency and Enrollment Eligibility Frequently Asked Questions” (Grosse Pointe Public School System: Grosse Pointe Public School System, June 14, 2008), accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/7BGqI; Debra Hartman, “Rochester Community Schools Accepting Limited School of Choice Applications,” Rochester-Rochester Hills Patch, Jan. 2, 2013, accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/G8gPX; Sara Eaton Martin, “Residency Enforcement to Be Addressed by Grosse Pointe Public Schools,” Grosse Pointe Patch, July 24, 2012, accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/X8f7x; Laura Houser, “Birmingham Joins Schools of Choice on Limited Basis In Exchange for State Aid,” Birmingham Patch, Jan. 16, 2013, accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/UK8al; Cameron Massey, “Incentives Prompt Freeland to Become School of Choice District,” Midland Daily News, July 11, 2012, accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/5Qa1q.

30 Glenda Rader, deputy director for the Michigan Department of Education Office of State Aid and School Finance, email correspondence with Audrey Spalding, July 26, 2012.

31 Kate Linebaugh, “Michigan Pushes for School Choice,” Wall Street Journal, Apr. 28, 2011, accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/ze3coR.

32 “Choice, Local Control at Odds in Michigan Schools,” MLive (The Associated Press, Aug. 27, 2012), accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/HRnAU; Sarah Eaton Martin, “Grosse Pointe Public Schools Passes Resolution Opposing Schools of Choice,” Grosse Pointe Patch, Aug. 24, 2011, accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/co1H1; William F. Ast III, “Snyder Wants More School Choice; Some Educators Object,” The Herald Palladium, Nov. 15, 2011, accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/NIXlm.

33 “Senate Bill 0624 (2011)” (Michigan Legislative Website), accessed Oct. 25, 2013, http://goo.gl/86ERMc.

34 MCL § 388.1705(9)(a)-(b).

35 MCL § 380.1309(2). State law requires school districts to expel students for certain actions, such as possessing a dangerous weapon, committing arson of a school building or on school grounds, criminal sexual conduct or physically or verbally assaulting school staff members. MCL § 380.1311(2); MCL § 380.1311a.

36 “Uniform Discipline Code for Student Conduct 2012-2013” (Grand Rapids Public Schools, Aug. 2012), 17, accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/eVnR0.

37 “2009-10 Civil Rights Data Collection Part 1 and Part 2” (U.S. Department of Education, 2011), accessed Nov. 1, 2013, http://goo.gl/LCyPl.

38 Motoko Rich, “Suspensions Are Higher for Disabled Students, Federal Data Indicate,” New York Times, Aug. 7, 2012, accessed Oct. 23, 2013, http://goo.gl/yqURr.

39 David Arsen, David Plank and Gary Sykes, “A Work in Progress,” Education Next 1, no. 4 (2001): 17, accessed Oct. 24, 2013, http://goo.gl/jF82LU.

40 For more information, see: “Collaborative Schools of Choice Program: 2013-2014” (Kent Intermediate Superintendents’ Association, 2013), accessed Oct. 24, 2013, http://goo.gl/JCGs8y.

41 Selcuk R. Sirin, “Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research,” Review of Educational Research 75, no. 3 (2005): 417–453, accessed Oct. 24, 2013, http://goo.gl/cOaoiC.

42 “Project Draft Bill” (Michigan Public Education Finance Project), accessed Oct. 24, 2013, http://goo.gl/TQuCI.

43 “2011-2012 State Aid Financial Status Report: Berrien Springs Public Schools” (Michigan Department of Education, 2012), accessed Oct. 22, 2013, http://goo.gl/bpibG. “Public Act 465 of 2012” (Michigan Legislature, 2012), accessed Oct. 22, 2013, http://goo.gl/0pj6R.

44 Audrey Spalding, “Birmingham Latest District to Exploit Schools of Choice” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy), accessed Nov. 1, 2013, http://goo.gl/zSQAqU; Audrey Spalding, “Reducing ‘Best Practices’ Money Best for Taxpayers” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Feb. 15, 2013), accessed Nov. 1, 2013, http://goo.gl/P6oH4I.

45 “Identification of Rural Locales” (National Center for Education Statistics), accessed Oct. 24, 2013, http://goo.gl/YTpOF.

46 Tai Phan and Mark Glander, “Documentation to the NCES Common Core of Data Local Education Agency Locale Code File: School Year 2005-06” (U.S. Department of Education, 2007), 3–4, accessed Oct. 24, 2013, http://goo.gl/Py7Ely.