1. Mainstream environmental groups rarely criticize, and often apologize for, the views of the reactionaries. "I think groups like Greenpeace and Earth First! make a significant contribution to the educational process," says Gaylord Nelson, a former U.S. Senator now with die Wilderness Society. "Hopefully with the different strategies of different environmental organizations, something better will happen for the world," adds National Audubon Society Vice President Robert San George. Quoted in Brandon Mitchener, "Out on a Limb for Mother Nature," E, Jan/Feb 1990, p. 46.

  2. We are indebted to Virginia Postrel for assembling much of the material in this section. See Postrel, "The Green Road to Serfdom," Reason, April, 1990, pp. 22-28.

  3. Cited in Richard L. Stroup, "The Green Movement: Its Origins, Goals and Relevance for a Liberal Society," Policy (Australia), Winter 1990, pp. 57.

  4. E. F. Schumacher, Small Is Beautiful (New York: Harper and Row, 1973), p. 68.

  5. Jeremy Rifkin, "Time Wars: A New Dimension Shaping Our Future," Utne Reader, September 1987, p. 57.

  6. Wendell Berry, The Unsettling of America (New York: Avon, 1977), p. 21.

  7. Bill Devall and George Sessions, Deep Ecology (Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith, 1985), p. 177. Translation by Tom Early.

  8. NOTE: People who endorse any one of the values listed below do not necessarily endorse all of the others.

  9. David Brower, For Earth's Sake, The Life and Times of David Brower (Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith, 1990), p. 125.

  10. David M. Graber, "Mother Nature as a Hothouse Flower," Los Angeles Times Book Review, October 22, 1989, p. 9.

  11. See "Only Man's Presence Can Save Nature," Harpers, April 1990, pp. 48.

  12. Stephanie Mills, Whatever Happened to Ecology? (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1989), p. 106.

  13. See James Lovelock. The Ages of Gaia (New York: Bantam Books, 1988), pp. 171-177. Technically, the nuclear power of the sun is "fusion," whereas for nuclear reactors it is "fission," which is less "clean." Reactionary environmentalists oppose both fusion and fission power developed by humans.

  14. Margaret Mead, passage from a book review on the cover of the paperback edition of Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (Greenwich, CT: Fawcett, 1962).

  15. Paul Ciotti, "Fear of Fusion; What If It Works?", Los Angeles Times, April 19, 1989, Section S, p. l.

  16. Ibid.

  17. Gregg Easterbrook, "Everything You Know About the Environment Is Wrong," The New Republic, April 30, 1990, p. 26.

  18. Randall Hayes, statement at Utne Reader "Early Warnings" conference in Minneapolis, May 18, 1990.

  19. Jeremy Rifkin, Entropy: A New World View (New York: Bantam, 1980), p. 216.

  20. Kirkpatrick Sale, "Presidential Matters," Resurgence, No. 132, January/February 1989, p. 33.

  21. Mills, Whatever Happened to Ecology?, p. 106.

  22. Murray Bookchin, "Death of a Small Planet," The Progressive, August 1989, p. 22.

  23. Schumacher, Small Is Beautiful, pp. 57-58.

  24. Mills, Whatever Happened to Ecology?, pp. 167-168.

  25. Fritjof Capra, The Tao of Physics (New York: Bantam, 1983), p. 298.

  26. Schumacher, Small Is Beautiful, p. 87.

  27. Devall and Sessions, Deep Ecology, p. 75.

  28. C. P. Snow, The Two Cultures: And a Second Look (New York: New American Library, 1963), p. 30.

  29. Donella El. Meadows, et. al., The Limits to Growth (New York: Universe Books, 1972). A similar report, produced by the Carter Administration(Global 2000 Report), has also been totally discredited. See Julian L. Simon and Herman Kahn, eds., The Resourceful Earth. A Response to the Global 2000 Report (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1984).

  30. Jonathon Porrilt and David Winner, The Coming of the Greens(London: Fontana, p. 11 .

  31. Cited in Stroup, "The Green Movement," p. 58.

  32. "Turning the Other Cheek," Executive Alert, Vol. 4, No. 4, July/August 1990, p. 1.

  33. Stroup, "The Green Movement," p. 57.

  34. Murray Bookchin, "Toward an Ecological Solution," Ramparts, May 1970, p. 14.

  35. Schumacher, Small Is Beautiful, p. 45.

  36. Alston Chase, "For Radical Ecologists, Government Is the Answer," Orange County Register, November 22, 1989.

  37. Mills, Whatever Happened to Ecology?, p. 190.

  38. We are indebted to Edith Efron for assembling much of the information in this section. See Efron, The Apocalyptics: How Environmental Politics Controls What We Know About Cancer (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984), pp. 28 — 30.

  39. See Mary Douglas and Aaron Wildavsky, Risk and Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983). John Baden has pointed out that many reactionary environmentalists are "crisis entrepreneurs," who provide channels through which people can express their good intentions regarding the environment. Both the giver and the receiver need crises for this purpose, whether the crises are real or imagined.

  40. The desire to capitalize on crises, even when none exist, is not limited to private groups. The same tendency can be found among government agencies anxious to increase the size of their budgets. For example, the scientists who analyzed water forecasts for the Carter Administration's Global 2000 Report concluded there were no useful forecasts of the world's water supplies. Yet the authors of the report ignored the scientists and made frightening predictions. See Stephen H. Hanke, "On Water: A Critique of Global 2000," in Simon and Kahn, The Resourceful Earth, pp. 267-271.

  41. Don K. Price, "Purists and Politicians," Science, Vol. 163, 1969, p. 31.

  42. Alan W. Watts, "The Individual as Man/World," in Paul Sheppard and Daniel McKinley, eds., The Subversive Science: Essays Toward an Ecology of Man (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1969), p. 142.

  43. Lewis Mumford, The Pentagon of Power: The Myth of the Machine(New York: Harcourt Brace Javonovich, 1970), p. 413.

  44. Robert Disch, ed., The Ecological Conscience: Value for Survival (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1970), p. XIV.

  45. Michael McCloskey, "Foreword," in John G. Mitchell and Constance L. Stallings, Ecotactics: The Sierra Club Handbook for Environmental Activists (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1970), p. 11. Cited in Efron, The Apocalyptics, p. 527, n. 28.

  46. Bookchin, "Toward an Ecological Solution," p. 10.

  47. Senator Gaylord Nelson, quoted by Tony Wagner, "The Ecology of Revolution," in Mitchell and Stallings, Ecotactics, p. 43. Cited in Efron, The Apocalyptics, p. 527, n. 24.

  48. G.Evelyn Hutchison, "The Biosphere," Scientific American, 223, 1970, p. 53.

  49. Lee Loevinger, quoted in Melvin J. Grayson and Thomas R. Sheppard, Jr., The Disaster Lobby: Prophets of Ecological Doom and Other Absurdities (Chicago: Follett, 1973), pp. 133 — 134.

  50. Alston Chase, Playing God in Yellowstone: The Destruction of America's First National Park (Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1986), pp. 92-115.

  51. Richard L. Stroup and John A. Baden, Natural Resources: Bureaucratic Myths and Environmental Management (San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute, 1983), Ch. 3.

  52. Mikhail S. Bernstam, The Wealth of Nations and the Environment (London: Institute of Economic Affairs, 1991), p. 13.

  53. William J. Baumol and Wallace B. Oates, "Long-run Trends in Environmental Quality," in Julian Simon and Herman Kahn, eds., The Resourceful Earth: A Response to Global 2000 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1984), p. 442.

  54. Interview with Stephen Jay Gould (Harvard University zoologist) in American Way, February 1, 1991.

  55. Snow,The Two Cultures, p. 30.

  56. Bernstam, The Wealth of Nations and the Environment, Table 5, p. 24.

  57. Ibid.

  58. lbid., p. 22.

  59. The lower-bound estimate is a multiple of 2.5; the upper-bound estimate is a multiple of 5.8.

  60. Bernstam, The Wealth of Nations and the Environment, p. 14.

  61. lbid., p. 15.

  62. lbid., pp. 28-29.

  63. Ibid., p. 29.

  64. Ibid., p. 18.

  65. lbid., pp. 24 -25.

  66. SeeFinancial Times(London), March 28, 1991.

  67. Lynn Scarlett, "Make Your Environment Dirtier — Recycle," Wall Street Journal, January 14, 1991.

  68. See the discussion in E. C. Pasour, Jr., Agriculture and the State: Market Processes and Bureaucracy, (Oakland, CA: The Independent Institute, 1990), pp. 199-213.

  69. Garrett Hardin, "Tragedy of the Commons," Science, Vol. 162, Nov. 11, 1968, pp. 1243-1248. See also Garrett Hardin and John Baden, Managing the Commons(New York: W.H. Freeman & Co., 1977).

  70. Terry L. Anderson and Don R. Leal, Free Market Environmentalism (San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy Research, 1991), p. 68.

  71. Not all passenger pigeons were shot by humans. The ultimate cause of their demise was the destruction of their habitat.

  72. See the discussion in Walter E. Block, "Environmental Problems, Private Property Rights Solutions," in Block, ed., Economics and the Environment: A Reconciliation (Vancouver, BC: Fraser Institute, 1990), pp. 307-308.

  73. Ibid., pp. 315-318. In India, elephants are domesticated and used as beasts of burden. In Africa, elephants are wildlife.

  74. Porritt and Winner, The Coming of the Greens, p. 266.

  75. Environmental Protection Agency, Unfinished Business: A Comparative Assessment of Environmental Problems, 1987.

  76. K. Landy, Marc J. Roberts and Stephen R. Thomas, The Environmental Protection Agency: Asking the Wrong Questions (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).

  77. Fred Smith, "Free Market Environmentalism." Paper presented to a Cato Institute conference on changing the Soviet system, September 10-14, 1990, Moscow, p. 22.

  78. See Rodney Fort and John Baden, "The Federal Budget as a Common Pool Resource," in John Baden and Richard L. Stroup, Bureaucracy vs. Government: The Environmental Cost of Bureaucratic Governance (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981).

  79. See Terry Anderson and P. J. Hill, "The Evolution of Property Rights: A Study of the American West," Journal of Law and Economics 12 (1975), pp. 163-179.

  80. "Special Report: The Public Benefits of Private Conservation," in Environmental Quality: The Fifteenth Annual Report of the Council on Environmental Quality (Washington, DC: CEQ, 1984) pp. 387-394. (Note: This section of the CEQ report is based on a report by Robert J. Smith entitled Inventory of Private Sector Natural Resource Conservation Activities, prepared under contract for the President's Council on Environmental Quality and the U.S. Department of Interior.)

  81. Ibid., pp. 394-398.

  82. Ibid., p. 399.

  83. Ibid., pp. 402-408.

  84. Ibid., pp. 425-427.

  85. Source: R. J. Smith, Cato Institute.

  86. Doyton Hyde, Yamsi (New York: Lyons & Burford, 1988).

  87. Competitive Enterprise Institute, "Readings in Free Market Environmentalism," 1990, Section IV, B.

  88. See Robert K. Davis, Steve H. Hanke and Frank Mitchell, "Conventional and Unconventional Approaches to Wildlife Exploitation," Transactions of the Thirty-eighth North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, Washington, DC: Wildlife Management Institute, 1973, pp. 75-89; and Randy Simmons and Urs Kreuter, "Herd Mentality: Banning Ivory Sales Is No Way to Save the Elephants," Policy Review, No. 50, Fall 1989, pp. 46-49.

  89. Governments already "label" high explosives manufactured in various countries as part of a worldwide antiterrorist program.

  90. Jane S. Shaw and Richard L. Stroup, "Gone Fishing," Reason, August/September 1988, pp. 34-37.

  91. Anglers' Cooperative Association Pamphlet. Reprinted in Anderson and Leal, Free Market Environmentalism,p. 148.

  92. Ed Zern, "By Yon Bonny Banks," Field and Stream, 86, September, 1981, p. 120.

  93. Anderson and Leal, Free Market Environmentalism, pp. 110-114.

  94. Ibid., pp. 108-109.

  95. Ibid., pp. 129-130.

  96. Ibid., pp. 121-134. On the difference between privately owned and publicly owned oyster beds, see Richard J. Agnello and Lawrence P. Donnelley, "Prices and Property Rights in Fisheries," Southern Economic Journal, 42, October 1972, pp. 253-262.

  97. Ibid., pp. 137-138.

  98. Ibid., p. 150.

  99. "Very few rights to pollute have actually been sold, however, partly because the threat of government interference has made the rights insecure and of uncertain value. See the discussion below.

  100. Ibid., p. 146.

  101. Anderson and Leal, Free Market Environmentalism, pp. 121-134.

  102. Ibid., pp. 130-132.

  103. Ibid., pp 115-116 and pp. 148-149. Although the establishment of well-defined property rights will become increasingly important as a deterrent to future pollution, the extent of current pollution has been greatly exaggerated. In the most comprehensive survey ever conducted, the EPA found less than 1 percent of all drinking water aquifers have synthetic chemical concentrations in violation of federal health standards. See Environmental Protection Agency, National Survey of Pesticides in Drinking Water Wells: Phase I Report, November 1990, p.vii.

  104. In Louisiana, unitization is compulsory, but in most other places it is based on voluntary agreements. See Gary D. Libecap and Steven N. Wiggins, "Contractual Responses to the Common Pool: Prorationing of Oil Production," American Economic Review, Vol. 74, March 1984, pp. 87-98; and David T. Fractor, A Property Rights Approach to Groundwater Management, Ph.D. dissertation from University of Oregon, 1982 (available from University Microfilms).

  105. Warren Brookes, "Man and Trees," Executive Alert, Vol. 4, No. 4, July/August 1990, p. 7.

  106. Robert H. Nelson, "Privatization of Federal Lands," in Meiners and Yandle, Regulation and the Reagan Era, p. 139. The net subsidy (costs minus benefits) is probably closer to $350 million a year. See Randall O'Toole, Growing Timber Deficits: Review of the Forest Service's 1990 Budget and Timber Sale Program (Oak Grove, OR: CHEC, 1991), p. 14.

  107. See Rick Henderson, "Going Mobile," Reason, August/September, 1990, pp. 32-36 and Donald L. Stedman, "Dirty-Car Tuneups Beat Oxy-Fuels by a Mile," Wall Street Journal, February 6, 1990.

  108. See James D. Gwartney and Richard L. Stroup, Economics: Private and Public Choice, 5th ed. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1990), pp. 721-723.

  109. See Bruce A. Ackerman and W.T. Hassler, Clean Coal/Dirty Air, or How the Clean Air Act Became a Multi-billion-Dollar Bail-Out for High Sulphur Coal Producers and What Should Be Done About It (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1981); Robert W. Crandall, "Ackerman and Hassler's Clean Coal/Dirty Air," Bell Journal of Economics, 12, Autumn 1981; and Robert W. Crandall, Controlling Industrial Pollution: The Economics and Politics of Clean Air (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1983).

  110. George Daly and Thomas Mayor, "Equity, Efficiency and Environmental Quality,"Public Choice, 51, 1986, p. 154.

  111. Anderson and Leal, Free Market Environmentalism, pp. 158-159.

  112. Smith, "Free Market Environmentalism," p. 30.

  113. Fred L. Smith, Jr., "Controlling the Environmental Threat to the Global Liberal Order." Paper presented to the Mont Pelerin Society, Christchurch, New Zealand, November 1989.

  114. See Mark Crawford, "Scientists Battle Over Grand Canyon Pollution," Science, Vol. 247, February 23, 1990, pp. 911-912.

  115. Ross Eckert, The Enclosure of Ocean Resources (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution, 1979), p. 185.

  116. Idso, who has reviewed more than 2,000 scientific articles on CO2, argues that the CO2 buildup we have experienced is partly responsible for the "green revolution" and that more CO2 and a warmer planet would produce a virtual Garden of Eden. Sec Idso, Carbon Dioxide and Global Change: Earth in Transition (Tempe, AZ: IBR Press, 1989).

  117. Budyko argues that global warming is necessary in order to prevent the next ice age. See Hugh W. Ellsaesser (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), "The Benefits of Increased CO2 Have Been Ignored and the Warming Exaggerated." Paper presented to the 1989 Pacific Environment Conference, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, October 22-25, 1989.

  118. Ibid.

  119. William K. Stevens, "In the Ebb and Flow of Ancient Glaciers, Clues to a New Ice Age: Greenhouse Effect Could Delay [tic Onset of the Cold, Glaciologists Say,"New York Times, January 16, 1990, p. C-1.

  120. Ellsaesser, "The Benefits of Increased CO2 Have Been Ignored and the Warming Exaggerated."

  121. Ibid.

  122. The Montreal Protocol on CFCs is often cited as a successful example of a cooperative international agreement which led to a reduction in the production of chlorofluorocarbons. Control of CFC production, however, is much easier since they are produced in large plants in a few countries, chiefly the United States, Canada and Britain. Even at that, a number of countries refused to sign the agreement, including China and India, and China threatens to become a major CFC producer.

  123. 0nly a small number of people take advantage of these options, perhaps because the amount of money they can divert is so small it does not justify the effort.

  124. Mills, Whatever Happened to Ecology?, p. 190.

  125. The origins of the Love Canal crisis were revealed by the investigative journalism of Reason magazine. See Eric Zuesse, "Love Canal: The Truth Seeps Out," Reason, February 1981, pp. 16-33.

  126. Dante Picciano, "A Pilot Cytogenic Study of the Residents Living Near Love Canal, A Hazardous Waste Site," Mammalian Chromosome Newsletter, 21, (3).

  127. For additional details on the Love Canal crisis and the similarly tragic case of dioxin exposure in Times Beach, Missouri, see Richard L. Stroup, "Chemophobia and Activist Environmental Antidotes: Is the Cure More Deadly Than the Disease?", in Walter Block, ed., Economics and the Environment: A Reconciliation, pp. 193 — 213.

  128. Richard L. Stroup and John A. Baden, Natural Resources: Bureaucratic Myths and Environmental Management (San Francisco: Pacific Institute for Public Policy Research, 1983), pp. 49-50 and pp. 107-108. See Also, Stroup and Baden, "Saving the Wilderness," Reason, 13, July 1981, pp. 28-36.

  129. "Special Report: The Public Benefits of Private Conservation," pp. 371-372.

  130. Chase, Playing God in Yellowstone.

  131. Peter Kirby and William Arthur, Our National Forests: Land in Peril (Washington, DC: The Wilderness Society and the Sierra Club, 1985) p. 4.

  132. John Baden, "Destroying the Environment: Government Mismanagement of Our Natural Resources," National Center for Policy Analysis, NCPA Policy Report No. 24, October 1986.

  133. Ibid.

  134. Ibid.

  135. Ibid.

  136. Ibid.

  137. Superfund, technically the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), provided for "liability, compensation, cleanup, and emergency response for hazardous substances released into the environment and the cleanup of inactive hazardous waste disposal sites." It provided $1.6 billion to clean up abandoned sites. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), passed in 1986, authorized an additional $8.5 billion to finance the Super-fund site cleanup effort. In addition, SARA enlarged the enforcement authorities for the purpose of compelling private cleanups. It intends also to shift waste management practices toward long-term prevention, rather than containment of wastes.

  138. James Bovard, "The Real Superfund Scandal," Cato Institute Policy Analysis No. 89, August 14, 1987.

  139. Ibid. See also Aaron Wildavsky, Searching For Safety (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1988), pp. 201-202.

  140. Bovard, "The Real Super-fund Scandal."

  141. According to EPA's chief of Hazardous Waste Implementation, William Sanjour, "Hooker would have had no trouble complying with these (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) regulations." Only paperwork would have been required, he said. See New York Times, June 30, 1980.

  142. Reported in Thomas W. Hazlett, "Ingredients of a Food Phobia," Wall Street Journal, August 5, 1988.

  143. See Wildavsky, Searching for Safety, Ch. 3.

  144. Ibid., Table 2, p. 63.

  145. Jack H. Hadley and Anthony O. Osei, "Does Income Affect Mortality? An Analysis of the Effects of Different Types of Income on Age/Sex/Race-Specific Mortality Rate; in the U.S.," Medical Care, Vol. 20, No. 9, September 1982, pp. 901-914

  146. Peter Huber, "The Market for Risk," Regulation, March/April, 1984, p. 37.

  147. Wayne B. Gray, "The Cost of Regulation: OSHA, EPA and the Productivity Slowdown," American Economic Review, Vol. 77, No. 5, December 1987, pp. 998-1006.

  148. Ibid.

  149. By contrast, after some of the most costly and least effective environmental, health and safety regulations were repealed, the rate of lost workday cases due to injury and illness reversed the upward vend of the three federal administrations prior to 1980, falling 10 percent afterward and 16 percent since its peak in 1979. See Thomas Walton and James Langenfeld, "Regulatory Reform Under Reagan — the Right Way and the Wrong Way," in Roger Meiners and Bruce Yandle, eds., Regulation and the Reagan Era: Politics, Bureaucracy and the Public Interest(Oakland, CA: The Independent Institute, 1989), pp. 42-43.

  150. EPA, Environmental Investments: The Cost of a Clean Environment, February, 1991.Cited in Inside EPA, February 8, 1991, p. 1.

  151. See Frederick Rueter and Wilbur Steger, "Air Toxics and Public Health," Regulation Magazine, Cato Institute, Winter 1990; and Lester Lave, How Safe Is Safe Enough? Setting Safety Goals, 1990, Center for the Study of American Business.

  152. Reported by Warren Brookes.

  153. A study by Oxford professors Richard Doll and Richard Peto, commissioned by the Office of Technology Assessment, examined U.S. national cancer mortality records from1933 to1978and found that only approximately 2 percent of all cancers are caused by environmental contamination or pollution. See Doll and Peto, "The Causes of Cancer: Quantitative Estimates of Avoidable Risks of Cancer in the United States Today," Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 66, 113-1308, 1981. The EPA's own findings via toxicological risk assessment corroborate Doll and Peto's analysis. According to the EPA, only between 1 and 3 percent of all cancers are caused by "pollution." See EPA, Unfinished Business. The EPA figures were extrapolated in Michael Gough, "Estimating Cancer Mortality," Environmental Science & Technology, August 1989, p. 925.

  154. Therisk for any person developing some form of cancer is one in four, since 25percent of the American public will suffer from cancer during their lives. The EPA's high estimates of risk are generally hidden behind the large probability that any given individual will develop some type of cancer. However, its method of calculation so exaggerates risk that in at least one case (a Texaco plant at Port Neches, TX) the EPA estimated that the added risk of cancer from living near the plant was one in ten. This is such a high figure that it should show up in public health figures. The EPA tries to avoid direct contradiction by arguing that these risk estimates should be used only for purposes of comparing relative risks.

  155. Rueter and Steger, "Air Toxics and Public Health."

  156. "Air Toxic Madness," Executive Alert, Vol. 4, No. 3, May/June 1990, p. 5.

  157. Rueter and Steger, "Air Toxics and Public Health."

  158. Ibid.

  159. Anthony Woodlief, The Environmental Crisis (San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1991), pp. 221-224.

  160. Donald L. Stedman, "Dirty-Car Tune-ups Beat Oxy-Fuels by a Mile."

  161. Quoted in Jerome H. Heckman, "California's Proposition 65: A Federal Supremacy and States' Rights Conflict in the Health and Safety Arena," Food Drug Cosmetic Law Journal, Vol. 43, 1988, p. 271,n. 3.

  162. Bruce N. Ames and Lois S. Gold, "Chemical Carcinogenesis: Too Many Rodent Carcinogens, " Bruce Ames, Margie Profit and Lois S. Gold, "Dietary Pesticides: 99.9 Percent All Natural" and "Nature's Chemicals and Synthetic Chemicals: Comparative Toxicology," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 87, 1990, pp. 7772-7786. (Hereinafter, Ames, CL al., "Chemical Carcinogenesis.")

  163. Ibid.

  164. See discussion in Bruce N. Ames, Renae Magaw and Lois Swirsky Gold, "Ranking Possible Carcinogenic Hazards," Science, Vol. 236, April 17, 1987, p. 274.

  165. Ames, et. al., "Chemical Carcinogenesis."

  166. Ibid.

  167. Ibid. See also Bruce N. Ames, "Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens," Science, Vol. 221, September 23, 1983, pp. 1256-1261. Not all scientists, of course, agree fully with either of these summaries. For one rather detailed exchange among scientists, including Ames and some of his critics, see "Letters," Science, Vol. 224 (May 18, 1984), pp. 658-670, 757-760.

  168. Wong, "A Critical Look At Human Cancer Culprits." Originally appeared in CHEMTECH, January 1987.

  169. For a recent review of the literature which is highly critical of inferring the risk to humans from rodent experiments, see Lester B. Lave, Fanny K. Ennever, Herbert S. Rosenkranz and Gilbert S. Omenn, "Information Value of Rodent Bioassay," Nature, Vol. 336, December 15, 1988, pp. 631-633. See also Kenneth Chilton, "A Guide to Understanding Risk Assessment and Its Potential to Resolve Regulatory Conflicts," Center for the Study of American Business, Working Paper No. 118, May, 1988.

  170. For a summary of the key provisions of Proposition 65, see Richard J. Denny, Jr., "California's Proposition 65: Coming Soon to Your Neighborhood," Toxics LawReporter, December 17, 1986, pp. 789-794; and Heckman, "California's Proposition 65," pp. 269-282.

  171. Robert W. Crandall and John D. Graham, "The Effect of Fuel Economy Standards on Automobile Safety," Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 31, No. 1, April 1989, pp. 97-118.

  172. Kathy H. Kushner, "Blood for Oil? CAFE Brews Hypocrisy," Detroit News, March 3, 1991.

  173. Sam Kazman, "Deadly Over Caution: FDA's Drug Approval Process," Journal of Regulation and Social Costs, Vol. 1, No. 1, September 1990, pp. 48 — 49.

  174. Richard B. McKenzie and John T. Warner, "The Impact of Airline Deregulation on Highway Safety," Center for the Study of American Business, December 1987.

  175. Wildavsky, Searching for Safety, p. 195-203.

  176. Chase, Playing God in Yellowstone, p. 233.

  177. "Special Report: The Public Benefits of Private Conservation," p. 408.

  178. Ibid., pp. 408-409.

  179. Ibid., p. 387.

  180. Ibid., p. 420.

  181. See, for example, "Special Report: The Public Benefits of Private Conservation," pp. 398-401.

  182. Ibid., p. 426. Similar efforts have been less successful in those parts of the country where the property owners have insecure property rights, making it difficult to control public access to their land.

  183. Ibid., pp. 394-398.

  184. Ibid., p. 367.

  185. Ibid., p. 393.

  186. Ibid., pp. 402-408.

  187. The National Acid Precipitation Task Force created by PL96-294.

  188. Emissions of nitrogen also increase the acidity of rain, but vegetation absorbs nitrogen as a nutrient, so almost none of it remains in streams or lakes. Sulphur levels, however, exceed the nutrient requirements of plants in the eastern United States, so some sulphur ends up in surface waters.

  189. See Edward C. Krug, "Fish Story: The Great Acid Rain Flimflam," Policy Review, Spring 1990; and J. Laurence Kulp, "Acid Rain: Causes, Effects, and Control," Regulation, Winter 1990.

  190. Sen. Albert Gore, Jr., "An Ecological Kristallnacht. Listen," New York Times, March 18, 1989.

  191. Warren Brookes, "After the Warming Hype Cools," Washington Times,November 14, 1990.

  192. Ibid.

  193. I. Jay Zwally, et al., "Growth of Greenland Ice Sheet: Measurement," Science, Vol. 246, December 22, 1989, pp. 1587-1591; and Warren Brookes, "Warmer, Greener, Better?", Washington Times, January 11, 1991.

  194. William Gray of the Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, has discovered a strong correlation between severe Atlantic hurricanes reaching the United States and an approximate 20-year cycle of wet and dry periods going back for hundreds of years in the western Sahel region of Africa. See William M. Gray, "Strong Association Between West African Rainfall and U.S. Landfall of Intense Hurricanes," Science, September 14, 1990, pp. 1251-1256. Gray suspects that a new 20-year wet cycle may have begun at the end of the 1980s. He writes, "With such a rainfall increase, we should also expect a return of more frequent intense hurricane activity in the Caribbean Basin and along the U.S. coastline. The historical data imply that such an increase in intense hurricane activity should be viewed as a natural change and not as a result of man's influence on his climate." Ibid., p. 1255. To the degree that temperature makes any difference, the historical record indicates that a warmer climate results in weaker hurricanes, while cooler temperatures produce more powerful storms. See S. B. Idso, R. C. Balling, Jr. and R. S. Cervany, "Carbon Dioxide and Hurricanes: Implications of Northern Hemispheric Warming for Atlantic/Caribbean Storms," Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, Vol. 42, December 1990, pp. 259 — 263.

  195. Kent Jeffreys, Competitive Enterprise Institute, "Why Worry about Global Warming?", National Center for Policy Analysis, NCPA Policy Report No. 96, February 1991, p. 6.

  196. Thomas Karl of the National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, NC, headed a study of U.S. records. After accounting for the urban heat island effect and other spurious data, he concluded that temperatures in the United States showed no statistically significant change over the past century.

  197. Warren Brookes, "Greenhouse Hysteria," Executive Alert, Vol. 4, No. 1, January/February, 1990, p. 3.

  198. Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas.

  199. W. Spencer and J. R. Christy, Science, Vol. 247, March 30, 1990, p. 1558.

  200. Robert J. Beck, Oil Industry Outlook (Tulsa, OK: PennWell Publishing Co., 1990), pp. 74 and 84.

  201. Ibid., p. 11.

  202. John Tierney, "Betting the Planet," New York Times Magazine, December 2, 1990.

  203. Reported in William K. Stevens, "Hopeful EPA Report Fans a Debate as Talks on Warming Near," New York Times, January 13, 1991, p. 18.

  204. Interim Report: National Energy Strategy. A Compilation of Public Comments, U.S. Department of Energy, April 1990, DOE/ S -0066P, P. 81.

  205. 0ne recent study on CO2 emission reductions, jointly conducted by Stanford University and the Electric Power Research Institute, pegged the economic costs of governmental greenhouse effect legislation at between $800 billion and $3.6 trillion by the year 2100. Others believe that these projections are too optimistic. Professor William Nordhaus, an economist at Yale, estimates that just to stabilize C02 emissions at 1990 levels would cost society between 1 and 2 percent of national income annually by 2050 ($50 billion to $100 billion annually today). See Peter Passell, "Staggering Cost Is Foreseen to Curb Warming of Earth, "NewYork Times, November 19, 1989, p. 18.

  206. Natural sources of CO2 are far greater than human sources, perhaps twenty times as large. It is often assumed that natural sources and natural "sinks" (or methods of absorption) of CO2 are in approximate equilibrium over the short term. Paleohistory teaches us, however, that C02 levels can vary widely in the absence of man. Any increase – or decrease – in the rate of natural emissions or natural absorption has the potential to overwhelm human contributions.

  207. Pieter P. Tans, Inez Y. Fung, Taro Takahashi, "Observational Constraints on the Global AtmosphericCO[2] Budget," Science, Vol. 247, March 23, 1990, pp. 1431-38.

  208. See, for example, D. Allan Bromley, "The Making of a Greenhouse Policy," Issues in Science and Technology, Fall 1990, pp. 55-61. See also Sandra Blakeslee, "Ideas for Making Ocean Trap Carbon Dioxide Arouse Hope and Fear," New York Times, November 20, 1990, p. C-4.

  209. Lynn Scarlett, "Myths about Solid Waste," National Center for Policy Analysis, forthcoming.

  210. Lynn Scarlett, "Make Your Environment Dirtier – Recycle," Wall Street Journal, January 14, 1991.

  211. Ibid.

  212. Personal communication to Lynn Scarlett from Ed Kline, Tetrapak; and Harry Teasley, Jr., "Presentation on Aseptic Package to Maine Waste Management Agency," October 9, 1990.

  213. Franklin Associates, "Disposable Diapers: Summary and Interpretation of Literature Sources on the Environmental and Health Effects of Diapers," July 1990.

  214. Ibid.

  215. Franklin Associates, "Comparative Energy and Environmental Impacts for Soft Drink Delivery Systems," March 1989.

  216. Martin B. Hocking, "Paper Versus Polystyrene: A Complex Choice," Science, Vol. 251, February 1, 1991, pp. 504-505.

  217. See, for example, Harvey Alter, "The Origins of Municipal Solid Waste: The Relations Between Residues from Packaging Materials and Food," Waste Management & Research, 1989 (7).

  218. Anderson and Leal, Free Market Environmentalism, p. 165.

  219. Rick Henderson, "Growing Pains," Reason, January 1991.

  220. Gabriel Roth, "Private Sector Alternatives in Urban Transportation," National Center for Policy Analysis, NCPA Report No. 125, January 1987.

  221. Pasour, Agriculture and the State, p. 239.

  222. Anderson and Leal, Free Market Environmentalism, pp. 102-103.

  223. Ibid., p. 102.

  224. Ibid., p. 103.

  225. Richard W. Wahl, Markets for Federal Water: Subsidies, Property Rights and the Bureau of Reclamation (Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 1989) pp. 197-219.

  226. Franklin Associates, "Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: 1990 Update," (Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1990).

  227. "Survey of Solid Waste Changes," City of Worcester, MA, February 1990.

  228. Lynn Scarlett, "Myths about Solid Waste."