1 Lonnie Harp, "Pennsylvania Parent Becomes Mother of 'Outcomes' Revolt," Education Week, September 22, 1993, 21.
2 Phyllis Schlafly, "What's Wrong With Outcomes Based Education?" The Phyllis Schlafly Report, May 1993, 4.
3 Harp, 20.
4 Chester E. Finn, Jr., "The Return of the Dinosaurs," National Review, September 20, 1993, 40.
5 James S. Coleman, "The Evaluation of 'Equality of Educational Opportunity,' " in Frederick Mosteller and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, eds., On Equality of Educational Opportunity (New York: Vintage Books, 1972), 149-150.
6 The National Commission on Excellence in Education, A Nation at Risk (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1983), 5.
7 Benjamin S. Bloom, Every Kid Can: Learning for Mastery (Washington, D.C.: College/University Press, 1973), 10.
8 National Govemors' Association, Time for Results: The Governors'1991 Report on Education (Washington D.C.: National Governors' Association, 1986), 2.
9 The Statement by the President and Governors, "A Jeffersonian Compact," New York Times, October 1, 1989.
10 Education Commission of the States (ECS), Outcomes Based Education: An Overview (Denver: ECS, 1993), 2.
11 Mary Jane Smetanka, "Students Soon Will Work For Outcomes, Not Diplomas," Star Tribune, September 12, 1993, 19A.
12 Independent Regulatory Review Commission, Pennsylvania Bulletin, Part II (Mechanicsburg, PA: Fry Communications, Volume 21, Number 44, November 2, 1991), "State Board of Education School Profiles; Curriculum; Vocational-Technical Education," 5222.
13 Ibid., 5232.
14 Ibid., 5234.
15 Ron Brandt, "On Outcome Based Education: A Conversation With Bill Spady," Educational Leadership 50, December, 1992/January, 1993, 69.
16 William G. Spady, "Organizing for Results: The Basis of Authentic Restructuring and Reform," Educational Leadership 46, October, 1988, 6.
17 Commonwealth of Virginia, Department of Education, Superintendent's Memo #263, December 18, 1992, 3.
18 John F. Harris, "Wilder Abandons Curriculum Change," Washington Post, September 16, 1993, IB; see also Maria Koklanaris and Laurie Killman, "Wilder Quashes 'Feel Good' Education," Washington Times, September 16, 1993, IA, 13A.
19 Minnesota Department of Education, Education Update, March 1991, 1.
20 Debra O'Connor and Linda Owen, "Carlson Stirs Up OBE Debate," St. Paul Pioneer Press, September 15, 1993, IB; see also Robett'Whereatt, "Carlson Changing Pace, Urges Caution on Teaching Overhaul," Star Tribune, September 14, 1993, 1B, 5B; Nancy Livingston, "Carlson Challenges OBE Goals," St. Paul Pioneer Press, September 14, 1993, IC, 4C.
21 Nancy Livingston and Debra O'Connor, "It's Back to Basics for Grads," St. Paul Pioneer Press, December 12, 1993, 14A.
22 Irving Kristol, "The Inevitable Outcome of 'Outcomes,'” Wall Street Journal, April 18, 1994,14A.
23 Albert Shanker, "Outrageous Outcomes," New York Times, September 12, 1993, 7B.
24 Robert Simonds, "A Plea for Children," Educational Leadership, December 1993/January 1994, 15.
25 National Education Goals Panel (NEGP), Promises to Keep: Creating High Standards for American Students (Washington, D.C.: NEGP, November 1993), see especially Executive Summary, D56-D60.
26 R. Craig Sautter, Charter Schools: A New Breed of Public Schools (Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, 1993), 5, quoting Kolderie; see also Ted Kolderie, "Charter Schools: The States Begin to Withdraw the 'Exclusive'," Network News and Views, February 1994, 103-108.
27 For an overview of the constitutionality of plans to give families more choices among all schools, see Amy Stuart Wells and Stuart Biegel, "Public Funds for Private Schools: Political and First Amendment Considerations," American Journal of Education, May 1993; Edward McGlynn Gaffney, Jr., ed., Private Schools and the Public Good (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1981), especially Part 3: Constitutional Perspectives. See also Congressional Research Service, Memorandum on the Constitutionality of Education Vouchers (Washington,D.C.: The Library of Congress, January 1, 1992), 1-5; Michael W. McConnell, "Multiculturalism, Majoritarianism, and Educational Choice: What Does Our Constitutional Tradition Have to Say?," University of Chicago Legal Forum 123 (1991), especially 134-151. Even Lawrence Tribe, a well-known politically liberal U.S. constitutional scholar, sees no serious constitutional questions. He said, "Given the existing doctrine about the separation of church and state, I do not see a serious First Amendment problem in a reasonably written voucher program." For comments by Tribe and other legal authorities, see "Breaking the Church-State Wall," Time, September 16, 1991, 55; and "Can Vouchers Hurdle Church-State Wall?," The New York Times, June 12, 1991, 5B.
The following Supreme Court cases on this issue are especially noteworthy: Mueller v Allen, 463 US 368 (1983); Witters v Washington Department of Services for the Blind, 474 US 481 (1986). The 1993 Supreme Court case of Zobrest v Catalina Foothills School District, No. 92-94, presented the related question of whether the Establishment Clause prevents a government from providing a sign-language interpreter to a deaf child in a sectarian high school when it is part of a general program of providing interpreters to all with disabilities. The Court ruled that the Establishment Clause does not bar the provision of a publicly funded sign interpreter for a deaf child who attends a Catholic school.