1. Barry T. Hirsch and David A Macpherson, Union Membership and Earnings Data Book: Compilations from the Current Population Survey (1999 Edition).

  2. See Average Annual Pay by State and Industry 1997, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Table 4, June 23, 1999, posted on Internet at http://stats.bls.gov/news.release/annpay.t04.htm. See also Michigan Department of Civil Service Workforce Reports, Statistical Highlights FY 1997-1998, posted on Internet at http://www.state.mi.us/mdcs/wrkfrce/stathil98.pdf.

  3. The National Labor Relations Act, Sec. 2(5), 29 U.S.C. 152(5).

  4. Philadelphia Cordwainers', 3 Commons and Gilmore, Documentary History of American Industrial Society 59-236 (Cleveland 1910); People v. Melvin, Select Cases III (N.Y. 1810).

  5. Commonwealth v. Hunt, 45 Mass. (4 Met.) 111 (1842).

  6. Vegelahn v. Gunter, 167 Mass. 92; 44 N.E. 1077 (1896).

  7. In re Debs, 158 U.S. 564 (1895).

  8. Sherman Act, 26 Stat. 209 (1890), 15 U.S.C. 1 et seq. (1988).

  9. Loewe v. Lawlor, 208 U.S. 274 (1908).

  10. Clayton Act, 38 Stat. 730, (1914), 15 U.S.C. 12 et seq. (1988).

  11. Id at 17.

  12. Id at 14-16.

  13. 254 U.S. 443 (1921).

  14. United Mine Workers v. Coronado Coal Co., 259 U.S. 344 (1922).

  15. See National War Labor Board, Principles and Rules of Procedure (1919).

  16. Id.

  17. 44 Stat. 577 (1926), 45 U.S.C. 151 et seq. (1988).

  18. Id.

  19. 48 Stat. 198 (1933).

  20. Id.

  21. 78 Cong. Rec. 4229, 42230 (1934) (statement by Sen. Wagner), reprinted in 1 NLRB, Legislative History of the National Labor Relations Act, 1935, at 23 (1985).

  22. A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States, 295 U.S. 495 (1935).

  23. 49 Stat. 449 (1935).

  24. 1 NLRB, Legislative History of the National Labor Relations Act, at 15 (1985). The original NLRA is also referred to as the "Wagner Act" in recognition of the New York Senator's unique contribution to its passage.

  25. 29 Stat. 452 (1935), reprinted in 2 NLRB, Legislative History of the National Labor Relations Act, at 3273 (1985).

  26. 49 Stat. 452 (1935); U.S.C. 158(a) (1) (1988).

  27. 49 Stat. 452 (1935); U.S.C. 158(a) (5) (1988).

  28. 61 Stat. 138-43, 149-51, reprinted in 1 NLRB, Legislative History of the National Labor Relations Act, at 3-13, 15-18 (1985).

  29. Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, North Carolina, North Dakota, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, and Wyoming.

  30. H.R. Rep. No. 741, 86th cong., 1st Sess. 6 (1959), reprinted in 1 NLRB, Legislative History of the National Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959, at 759, 764 (1985).

  31. 73 Stat. 522, 524-25, 532, 535, 539, 541-45 (1959), reprinted in 1 NLRB, Legislative History of the National Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959, at 4, 6-9, 14, 17-26 (1985).

  32. 88 Stat. 395 (1974).

  33. This will be the National labor Relations Board if it is a private sector employer, or the Michigan Employment Relations Commission, if it is public sector employer.

  34. 29 U.S.C. 158(d).

  35. NLRB v. Montgomery Ward & Co., 133 F2d 686 (1943).

  36. See David Y. Denholm, The Case Against Public Sector Unionism and Collective Bargaining, 18 Government Union Review, Number 1, (May, 1998).

  37. Lawrence W. Reed, "Michigan's Privatization Revolution," Viewpoint on Public Issues 1996-15 (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, May 1996). Accessible by Internet: http://www.mackinac.org/v1996-15.

  38. Public Employees Bargain for Excellence: A Compendium of State Public Sector Labor Relations laws (Compiled by Krista Schneider, Public Employee Department, AFL-CIO, 1992). Those states include Alaska, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

  39. PA 176 of 1939 as amended; MCLA 423.1 et seq.

  40. These are by no means the sole sources of union spending beyond collective bargaining expenses. In Lehnert v. Ferris Faculty Ass' c, 500 U.S. 507 (1991), the U.S. Supreme Court identified seven other examples of union expenses not chargeable to Beck objectors:

    1. Lobbying, unless necessary to ratify or fund the collective bargaining agreement that is applicable to a nonmember;

    2. Public relations activities;

    3. Litigation not specifically on behalf of the nonmember's bargaining unit;

    4. Expenditures related to illegal strikes;

    5. Expenditures related to organizing the employees of other employers;

    6. Union "members only" benefits such as prepaid legal insurance; and,

    7. Expenditures related to portions of unoin publications reporting on the above categories.

  41. NLRB v. Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co., 388 U.S. 175 (1967).

  42. 29 U.S.C. 163.

  43. NLRB v. Mackay Radio, 304 U.S. 333 (1938).

  44. Communications Workers v. Beck, 487 U.S. 735 (1988).

  45. Ford Motor Co. v. Huffman, 345 U.S. 330 (1953).

  46. Pattern Makers v. NLRB, 473 U.S. 95 (1985).

  47. General Motors, 373 U.S. 734 (1963); Pattern Makers v. NLRB, 473 U.S. 95 (1985).

  48. 431 U.S. 209 (1977).

  49. 475 U.S. at 310 (1986).

  50. California Saw & Knife Co., 320 NRLB 224 (1995) enforced sub nom. International Ass' n of Machinists & Aerospace Workers v. NLRB, 133 F3d 1012 (7th Cir. 1998).

  51. Ellis v. Railway Clerks, 466 U.S. 435 (1984). See also Lehnert v. Ferris Faculty Association, 500 U.S. 507 (1991) in which the Court concluded that the first Amendment precluded the public union from charging dissenting objectors for the union's lobbying and political activities.

  52. Supra note 44.

  53. Id. at 745.

  54. 320 NLRB 11 (1995).

  55. Mayo Leasing Co., 322 NLRB (1996).

  56. See also Weyerhaeuser Paper Co., 320 NLRB 12 (1995), (unions must notify current employees of their Beck rights if they were not informed of those rights at the time they entered the bargaining unit); IUS, Local 444 (Paramax Systems Corporation), 322 NLRB 1 (1996), (union must provide dissenting employee with a breakdown of its major categories of expenditures or differentiate between chargeable and non-chargeable expenses); Laborers' International Union, Local 265 (Fred A. Nemann Co.), 322 NLRB 47 (1996), (union need not provide employee with financial information to allow an objector to decide whether to mount a dues reduction challenge where the union has waived for the employee all requirements for dues payments); United Brotherhood of Carpenters, Local 943 (Oklahoma Fixture Co.), 322 NLRB 142 (1997), (union's use of a charitable dues payment alternative does not relieve it of its obligation to provide the employee and other objectors with Beck related financial information).

  57. Labor-Management Relations Act, as amended, 1974, Section 19, "Individuals with Religious Convictions," 29 U.S.C. 169.

  58. Princeton Survey Research Associates (Dec. 5, 1994).

  59. NLRB v. Electromation, Inc., 309 NLRB 163 (1992).

  60. Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S. 438, 478 (1928).

  61. See Griswold v. State of Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965).

  62. See Toussaint v. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, 408 Mich 579 (1980); and Rood v. General Dynamics Corp., 444 Mich 107 (1993). (written policies and procedures with employee handbook gave rise to legitimate expectations that discharge would be only for cause).

  63. NLRB v. Washington Aluminum Co., 370 U.S. 9 (1962).

  64. Meyers Industries, 281 NLRB 118 (1986).

  65. 29 U.S.C. 152(2).

  66. 29 U.S.C. 152(3).

  67. 29 U.S.C. 157.

  68. 29 U.S.C. 158(a)(1)-(a)(5).

  69. 29 U.S.C. 158(b)(1)-8(b)(7).

  70. NLRB v. Town & Country Electric, Inc. 116 S. Ct. 133 (1995).

  71. 29 U.S.C. 158(b)(7).

  72. Mich. Comp. Laws 421.29(8).

  73. Plymouth Stamping v. Lipshu, 436 Mich 1 (1990).

  74. NLRB v. Mackay & Tel. Co., 304 U.S. 333 (1938).

  75. Id. at 345-46.

  76. See, e.g., Technology, Inc., 253 NLRB 900 (1980).

  77. Marquez v. Screen Actors Guild, 119 S. Ct. 292 (1998).

  78. 49 NLRB 828 (1943), enf'd, 142 F.2d 1009 (5th Cir.), cert. denied, 323 U.S. 894 (1944).

  79. Republic Aviation Corp.v. Labor Board, 324 U.S. 793, 803 n.10 reh'g denied, 325 U.S. 894 (1945).

  80. 138 NLRB 615, 621 (1962).

  81. Id. at 620 n.6.

  82. 211 NLRB 749 (1947).

  83. TRW, Inc., 257 NLRB 442 (1981).

  84. Our Way, Inc., 268 NLRB 394 (1983).

  85. NLRB v. Babcock & Wilcox Co., 351 U.S. 105 (1956).

  86. Lechmere, Inc. v. NLRB, 502 U.S. 527 (1992); cf. International Brotherhood of Teamsters v. NLRB, cert. denied, U.S. Sup. Ct., No. 95-1760 (10/7/96); Sears, Roebuch & Co. v. San Diego County Council of Carpenters, 436 U.S. 180 (1978).

  87. 29 U.S.C. 158(c).

  88. Clear Pine Mouldings, Inc., 268 NLRB 1044 (1984).

  89. See e.g., NLRB B. Savair Manufacturing Co., 414 U.S. 270 (1973) (union may not waive initiation fees for employees as an incentive to sign authorization cards before the election); NLRB v. Dunkirk Motor Inn Inc. 524 F.2d 663, 665 (2d Cir. 1975). (court held that an unconditional promise to waive an initiation fee, which is open to all employees regardless of how they vote and which is open to all employees regardless of how they vote and which remains open after the date and certification, is permissible).

  90. 29 U.S.C. 158(a)(5).

  91. 29 U.S.C. 158(b)(3).

  92. Id. Economic strikers may not be entitled to get their jobs back under certain circumstances, such as where the strikers have committed misconduct related to the strike. Clear Pine Mouldings, Inc., 268 NLRB 1044 (1984), enf'd 765 F.2d 148 (9th Cir. 1985).

  93. NLRB v. Fleetwood Trailer Co., 389 U.S. 375, 381 (1967).

  94. The Laidlaw Corporation, 171 NLRB 1366, 1369 (1968); See also Brooks Research & Manufacturing, Inc., 202 NLRB 634, 636 (1973).

  95. Mastro Plastics Corp. v. NLRB, 305 U.S. 270, 278 (1956). Where permanent replacements have been displaced by unfair labor practice strikers or pursuant to an agreement with the union, the employer may be liable to the permanent replacement for damages on a breach of contract theory. See Belknap, Inc. v. Hale, 463 U.S. 491 (1983).

  96. Bureau of Employment Relations
    State of Michigan Plaza Building
    1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite 1400 N
    Detroit, MI 48226
    (313) 256-3540

  97. 29. U.S.C. 160(b).

  98. Supra note 38.

  99. Union Membership and Earnings Data Book: Compilations from the Current Population Survey (1999 Edition).

  100. Mich. Comp. Laws 423.201 et seq.

  101. MI Const. Art. IV, 48.

  102. Mich. Comp. Laws 423.1 et seq.

  103. Gibraltar School Dist. v. Gibraltar Mespa-Transportation, 443 Mich 326 (1993); Mt. Clemens Fire Fighters Union, Local 838, I.A.F.F. v. City of Mt. Clemens, 58 Mich App 635 (1975) (comparing NLRA section 8(d) to PERA section 15); MERC v. Reeths-Puffer School Dist., 391 Mich 253 (1974).

  104. Supra note 100, 201(e).

  105. Rockwell v. Board of Ed. of School Dist. of Crestwood, 393 Mich 616 (1975).

  106. Regents of University of Michigan v. MERC, 389 Mich 96 (1973).

  107. See Welfare Emp. Union v. Michigan Civil Service Commission, 28 Mich App 343 (1970); Service Emp. Intern Union Local 79, AFL-CIO v. State Racing Commissioner, 27 Mich App 676 (1970). See also, supra note 3.

  108. Chapter 6, Employee Relations Rules, Michigan Civil Service Commission Rules, April 25, 1980, as amended in December, 1998.

  109. See Mich. Comp. Laws 423.210(1).

  110. Id. at 423.210(3).

  111. Id. at 423.212(a).

  112. Id. at 423.212(b).

  113. Id. at 423.214.

  114. Id. at 423.216(a).

  115. Id. at 423.216(b).

  116. Id. at 423.202a(4). It should be noted that the provisions of 2a(4) that provide for a $5000.00 fine imposed against the bargaining unit were found unconstitutional in Michigan State AFL-CIO v. Employment Relations Commission, 212 Mich App 472 (1995).

  117. Supra note 100, 423.202a(5).

  118. Id. at 423.202a.

  119. Public Sector Strikes in Michigan, Citizens Research Council of Michigan, Report No. 290, December 1988.

  120. See Mich. Comp. Laws 423.213; cf. also Detroit Bd. of Ed. v. Local 28, Organization of School Administrators & Supervisors, AFL-CIO, 106 Mich App 438 (1981).

  121. Grandville Municipal Executive Ass' n v. City of Grandville, 453 Mich 428 (1996), quoting Detroit Police Dep' t v. Detroit Police Command Officers' Ass' n, 1996 MERC Lab Op 84, 105.

  122. Id.

  123. Gibraltar School Dist., supra note 103 at 334.

  124. Detroit Police Officer Ass' n v. City of Detroit Police Dept., 61 Mich App 487 (1975).

  125. Some sections enhanced the local school board's decision-making powers by removing subjects from bargaining; another aimed at clearing persistent problems associated with the MEA's group insurance plan, MESSA. Finally, some sections were included to ensure that the strike prohibition could not be frustrated by collective bargaining. For example, public school teachers had manipulated the starting day for the school year in the past in order to claim that they were not on strike.

  126. Established under Mich. Comp. Laws 380.1202a.

  127. Under Mich. Comp. Laws 380.501-507.

  128. See Mich. Comp. Laws 423.207a.

  129. The constitutionality of this provision was upheld in Michigan State AFL-CIO v. Employment Relations Commission, 453 Mich 362 (1996).

  130. Mich. Comp. Laws 423.231 et seq.

  131. City of Manistee v. MERC, 168 Mich App 422 (1988).

  132. 5 U.S.C. 7101 et seq.

  133. Id.

  134. The American Workplace 1996 Labor Day Report, the Employment Policy Foundation (Wash., D.C.).

  135. 59 NLRB Ann. Rep (1994).

  136. Beck, supra note 44.

  137. For more information on paycheck protection, see Robert P. Hunter, Paycheck Protection in Michigan (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, September 1998). Accessible by Internet: www.mackinac.org/790.

  138. Supra note 77.

  139. NLRB v. General Motors, 373 US 734 (1963).

  140. NLRB v. Cabot Carbon Co., 360 U.S. 203 (1959); Electromation, Inc., 309 NLRB 990 (1992); enforced, 35 F 3d 1148 (1994).

  141. NLRB v. Gissel Packing Co., 395 US 575 (1969).

  142. 29 U.S.C. 173(c).

  143. 29 U.S.C. 159(e).