1 Rick Snyder, “A Special Message from Governor Rick Snyder: Health and Wellness” (State of Michigan, Sept. 14, 2011), https://perma.cc/JR5T-ND87.

2 Alex Rosaen and Jason Horwitz, “The Cost of Dental-Related Emergency Room Visits in Michigan” (Anderson Economic Group, LLC, April 3, 2014), 2, https://perma.cc/9SPL-RJ79.

3 “Oral Health in Michigan” (The Center for Health Workforce Studies, April 2015), 113, https://perma.cc/WP43-6H7U.

4 Alex Rosaen and Jason Horwitz, “The Cost of Dental-Related Emergency Room Visits in Michigan” (Anderson Economic Group, LLC, April 3, 2014), 2, https://perma.cc/9SPL-RJ79.

5 Ibid.

6 “Senate Bill No. 1013” (State of Michigan, June 7, 2016), Sec. 16651, https://perma.cc/76YD-QPD5.

7 “About Us” (Commission on Dental Accreditation, 2016), https://perma.cc/ZAZ9-Y95G.

8 “Search for Dental Programs” (Commission on Dental Accreditation, 2016), https://perma.cc/EQP4-8BMS.

9 “Senate Bill No. 1013” (State of Michigan, June 7, 2016), Sec. 16651(2)(B), https://perma.cc/76YD-QPD5.

10 Ibid., Sec. 16651(2)(C).

11 Ibid., Sec. 16654.

12 Ibid., Sec. 16655.

13 Ibid., Sec. 16656.

14 Ibid., Sec. 16657.

15 Ibid., Sec. 16658.

16 “A Century of Oral Health Care” (NZ Dental & Oral Health Therapists Association), https://perma.cc/6UFX-S2QD.

17 Sarah Shoffstall-Cone and Mary Williard, “Alaska Dental Health Aide Program,” International Journal of Circumpolar Health 72, no. SUPPL.1 (2013): 1–5, https://perma.cc/44VS-XSCG.

18 “Dental Health Aide” (Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium), https://perma.cc/A4Y6-UKBX.

19 “Dental Therapist (DT)” (Minnesota Department of Health, Sept. 9, 2016), https://perma.cc/66H8-2JBK; “Dental Therapist Scope of Practice” (Minnesota Board of Dentistry, 2009), https://perma.cc/9JT9-AWAZ; “Advanced Dental Therapist Scope of Practice” (Minnesota Board of Dentistry, 2009), https://perma.cc/3QDP-TM77.

20 “LePage Signs Bill for Dental Hygiene Therapists” (The Associated Press, April 29, 2016), https://perma.cc/A4WG-M756; Wendell Potter, “Organized Dentistry Loses Big In Another State As Propaganda Stops Working” (Huffington Post, June 20, 2016), https://perma.cc/6N65-6BTV.

21 Logan Elizabeth Pike, “Research & Commentary: Dental Therapists” (The Heartland Institute, Aug. 30, 2016), https://perma.cc/8UDB-ZWQY.

22 “Early Impacts of Dental Therapists in Minnesota” (Minnesota Department of Health, Minnesota Board of Dentistry, Feb. 2014), 1–2, https://perma.cc/A3KQ-PMUM.

23 “Expanding the Dental Team: Increasing Access to Care in Public Settings” (The Pew Charitable Trusts, June 2014), 2, https://perma.cc/QL74-BPRP.

24 Elizabeth Phillips, Anne E. Gwozdek and H. Luke Shaefer, “Safety Net Care and Midlevel Dental Practitioners: A Case Study of the Portion of Care That Might Be Performed under Various Setting and Scope-of-Practice Assumptions,” American Journal of Public Health 105, no. 9 (Sept. 2015): 1770–1776, https://perma.cc/GF5M-F44V.

25 “Oral Health in Michigan” (The Center for Health Workforce Studies, April 2015), 12, https://perma.cc/WP43-6H7U.

26 Ibid., 12, 32.

27 Ibid., 57.

28 Ibid., 65.

29 Ibid., 58.

30 Ibid.

31 Ibid., 79.

32 Ibid., 78.

33 Ibid., 92; Frederick Rohde, “Dental Expenditures in the 10 Largest States, 2010” (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, June 2013), https://perma.cc/4UDR-RB6H.

34 “Oral Health in Michigan” (The Center for Health Workforce Studies, April 2015), 93, https://perma.cc/WP43-6H7U.

35 Ibid., 94.

36 Ibid.

37 “HRSA Data Warehouse” (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Sept. 21, 2016), https://perma.cc/9ZYT-8D5E.

38 “HRSA Data Warehouse: Map Tool” (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Sept. 21, 2016), https://perma.cc/UHJ3-HGF2.

39 “Count Your Smiles, 2011-2012” (Michigan Department of Community Health, May 2011), 18–19, https://perma.cc/ZB65-6HN7.

40 Ibid., 16.

41 Ibid., 44.

42 Ibid., 48.

43 “Oral Health in Michigan” (The Center for Health Workforce Studies, April 2015), 42, https://perma.cc/WP43-6H7U.

44 “Check-Up on Oral Health: A Call to Action” (Michigan Oral Health Coalition, 2014), 2, https://perma.cc/W99D-QENX.

45 Ibid., 1.

46 “Oral Health in Michigan” (The Center for Health Workforce Studies, April 2015), 33, https://perma.cc/WP43-6H7U; Sue Thoms, “Kent County Kids Get ‘Huge Win’ as 2016 State Budget Expands Dental Program” (MLive.com, June 17, 2015).

47 “Oral Health in Michigan” (The Center for Health Workforce Studies, April 2015), 56, https://perma.cc/WP43-6H7U.

48 Ibid., 113.

49 Alex Rosaen and Jason Horwitz, “The Cost of Dental-Related Emergency Room Visits in Michigan” (Anderson Economic Group, LLC, April 3, 2014), https://perma.cc/9SPL-RJ79.

50 “Count Your Smiles, 2011-2012” (Michigan Department of Community Health, May 2011), 25, https://perma.cc/ZB65-6HN7.

51 Mert N. Aksu, Elizabeth Phillips and H. Luke Shaefer, “U.S. Dental School Deans’ Attitudes About Mid-Level Providers,” Journal of Dental Education 77, no. 11 (Nov. 2013): 1469–1476, https://perma.cc/VJD5-DVDY.

52 “Oral Health in Michigan” (The Center for Health Workforce Studies, April 2015), 9, 11, 15, https://perma.cc/WP43-6H7U.

53 Ibid., 15.

54 “Michigan Department of Community Health Survey of Dentists” (Michigan Department of Community Health, Feb. 2012), 10, https://perma.cc/G9FG-VS28.

55 “Oral Health in Michigan” (The Center for Health Workforce Studies, April 2015), 129, https://perma.cc/WP43-6H7U.

56 “Michigan Department of Community Health Survey of Dentists” (Michigan Department of Community Health, Feb. 2012), 8, https://perma.cc/G9FG-VS28.

57 “Oral Health in Michigan” (The Center for Health Workforce Studies, April 2015), 131, https://perma.cc/WP43-6H7U.

58 Ibid.

59 John Davidson, “Improving Access to Care Through Dental Hygiene Practiontioners” (Texas Public Policy Foundation, April 10, 2015), https://perma.cc/HC8W-5ELL.

60 John Davidson, “New Poll Shows Voters Strongly Support Dental Workforce Reform in Texas” (Texas Public Policy Foundation, April 21, 2015), https://perma.cc/N7UP-NQAU.

61 Paul Blair, “ATRF Poll Shows Overwhelming Bipartisan Support for Creation of Mid-Level Dental Providers” (Americans for Tax Reform, Aug. 31, 2016), https://perma.cc/BBV3-KK74.

62 “ED Utilization for Preventable Oral Health Care Conditions in MA” (Massachusetts Health Policy Commission, April 6, 2016), https://perma.cc/2TW2-Q49R; Kelly Vitzthum, “UPDATED – Dental Hygiene Practitioners: Why They’re Needed in Massachusetts, and Why the Amendment Failed” (Harvard Law Petrie-Flom Center, July 12, 2016), https://perma.cc/569Q-UTPQ.

63 “Senate Bill 330” (Ohio State Senate, May 17, 2016), https://perma.cc/HVH7-7K53; Rosalie Rayburn, “Dental Therapist Bill Passes the House,” Albuquerque Journal, March 17, 2015, https://perma.cc/6ZVJ-ALQG.

64 Kimber Solana, “CODA Votes to Establish Accreditation Process for Dental Therapy Education,” ADANews (American Dental Association, Aug. 7, 2015), https://perma.cc/G5S2-Z3CH.

65 “FTC Staff Urges Dental Accreditation Commission To Adopt Dental Therapy Accreditation Standards” (Federal Trade Commission, Dec. 1, 2014), https://perma.cc/9K37-NEAX.

66 Jay W. Friedman, “The International Dental Therapist: History and Current Status.,” Journal of the California Dental Association 39, no. 1 (Jan. 2011): 23–9, https://perma.cc/9PW5-U65N; Burton L. Edelstein, “Examining Whether Dental Therapists Constitute a Disruptive Innovation in US Dentistry,” American Journal of Public Health 101, no. 10 (2011): 1831–1835, https://perma.cc/JM7H-HBWF.

67 For a list of some of this research, see: “Dental Therapists” (Kansas Dental Project), https://perma.cc/FSS3-D97T.