1  Paul Kersey, "Union Spending in Michigan: A Review of Union Financial Disclosure Reports" (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2008), 18-22, http://www.mackinac.org/archives/2008/S2008-09.pdf (accessed September 1, 2009).

2  Jeffrey McCracken, "Future's on Line for Auto Industry," Detroit Free Press, July 12, 2003.

3  Detroit Police Officers Assoc. v. City of Detroit, 391 Mich 44 at 53-4 (1974).

4  Calculations based on "State and Local Government Finances by Level of Government and by State: 2005-06," U.S. Census Bureau, http://www.census.gov/govs/estimate/0623misl_1.html (accessed September 1, 2009).

5  "Pennsylvania School Spending" (Commonwealth Foundation for Public Policy Alternatives, 2009), http://sunshinereview.org/index.php/Pennsylvania_school_spending (accessed September 1, 2009); Steve Stanek, "New Chicago Budget Gives City Some of the Nation's Highest Tax Rates" (Heartland Institute, 2005), http://www.heartland.org/publications/budget%20tax/article/16227/New_Chicago_Budget_Gives_City_ Some_of_the_Nations_Highest_Tax_Rates.html (accessed September 1, 2009).

6  La Rae G. Munk, "Collective Bargaining: Bringing Education to the Table" (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1998), 57-73, http://www.mackinac.org/archives/1998/S1998-04.pdf (accessed September 1, 2009).

7  "The Public Employment Relations Act: Conflicts and Possible Alternatives" (Citizens Research Council of Michigan, 1987), http://www.mml.org/advocacy/pa312/publications/crc_report-pa312.pdf(accessed September 1, 2009), quoting Frank J. Kelley, "Opinion No. 6244," Michigan Attorney General, http://www.ag.state.mi.us/opinion/datafiles/1980s/op06244.htm (accessed September 1, 2009).

8  Wayne County Civil Service Commission v. Board of Supervisors, 384 Mich 363 (1971).
In this case, the Wayne County CSC argued that it should serve as the bargaining representative for Wayne County as a consequence of its statutory duty to administer employment. This argument was rejected, rendering civil service commissions gravely weakened.

9  Kelley, "Opinion No. 6244."

10  "The Public Employment Relations Act: Conflicts and Possible Alternatives," 7-8.

11  Pontiac Police Officers Assoc. v. City of Pontiac, 397 Mich 674 (1976 -  police discipline); Detroit Police Officers Assoc. v. City of Detroit, 391 Mich 44 (1974 -  residency); City of Alpena v. Alpena Firefighters Assoc., 56 Mich App. 568 (1974 -  staffing levels) Rockwell v. Crestwood Bd. of Educ., 393 Mich 616 (1975 -  education).

12  Barry Hirsch and David Macpherson, "Union Membership and Coverage Database," Unionstats.com, http://www.unionstats.com (accessed September 1, 2009).

13  Author's calculations based on Hirsch and Macpherson, supra.

14  Leo Troy, The New Unionism in the New Society: Public Sector Unions in the Redistributive State (Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Press, 1994).

15  Ibid., 10.

16  Ibid., 15.

17  Paul Johnston, Success While Others Fail (ILR Press, 1994) 13.

18  Ibid., 211.

19  Steve Porter, "AFT Public Employees Compensation Survey: A Survey of Professional, Scientific and Related Occupations in State Government" (American Federation of Teachers, 2008), http://www.aft.org/salary/2008/PubEmpsCompSurvey08.pdf (accessed September 1, 2009).

20  Author's calculations based on "State and Local Government Finances by Level of Government and by State: 2005-06" and Porter, "AFT Public Employees Compensation Survey: A Survey of Professional, Scientific and Related Occupations in State Government."

21  Tim Martin, "Unions Fault Single Health Plan for Schools," Detroit Free Press, August 11, 2005, 3-B.

22  Paul Kersey, "MESSA: Keeping School Districts from Saving Money on Health Care" (Michigan Education Report, August 12, 2004), http://www.educationreport.org/pubs/mer/6742 (accessed September 1, 2009).

23  James Hohman and Adam Rule, "Diminishing Private Sector Keeps Supporting Bloated Public Benefits" (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2009), http://www.mackinac.org/10745 (accessed September 1, 2009).

24  "Dillon Calls for Single Public Sector Health Care Program," Gongwer News Service, July 15, 2009.

25  Jack McHugh, "Anatomy of a Tax Hike Campaign: A Chronicle" (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, October 12, 2007), http://www.mackinac.org/8532 (accessed September 1, 2009).

26  Paul Kersey, "News Release: State Government Paid $17.6 Million to Unions in 2008, According to Documents Secured by FOIA Request" (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, March 3, 2009), http://www.mackinac.org/10326 (accessed September 1, 2009).

27  Author's calculations based on data from the FOIA request and Hirsch and Macpherson, "Union Membership and Coverage Database."

28  Kersey, "Union Spending in Michigan: A Review of Union Financial Disclosure Reports." http://www.mackinac.org/archives/2008/S2008-09.pdf (accessed September 1, 2009)

29  Ibid., 18-22.