1. Philip A. M. Taylor, ed., The Industrial Revolution in Britain: Triumph or Disaster? (Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath and Co., 1958), xi-xii, 34-44; W. H. Hutt, "The Factory System of the Early Nineteenth Century," in F. A. Hayek, ed., Capitalism and the Historians (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954), 156-84; Lawrence W. Reed, "Child Labor and the British Industrial Revolution," The Freeman (August 1991), 304-07; Frank McNaughton, Mennen Williams of Michigan (New York: Ocean Publications, 1960), 53-54.

2. I found only one other Michigan history text in use, Grace Kachaturoff, Michigan (Salt Lake City: Gibbs M. Smith, 1987). I didn’t review this book because it is only partly a history book, and also because it is currently out of print. Textbooks used in Michigan history classes (and for other courses, too) have been collected and are available in the Michigan Textbook Collection in the Instructional Materials Center at Central Michigan University.

3. David McConnell, Forging the Peninsulas (Hillsdale, Mich.: Hillsdale Educational Publishers, 1995).

4. An excellent recent biography is John D. Haeger, John Jacob Astor: Business and Finance in the Early Republic (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1991).

5. McConnell, Forging the Peninsulas, 115-16.

6. Robert J. Parks, Democracy’s Railroads: Public Enterprise in Jacksonian Michigan (Port Washington, N. Y.: Kennikat Press, 1972), 68.

7. Ibid., 211-34; Thomas M. Cooley, Michigan, 290.

8. Cooley, Michigan, 291-92.

9. McConnell, Forging the Peninsulas, 198-99.

10. Ibid., 315-22; Milton Friedman and Anna Jacobson Schwartz, A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963).

11. McConnell, Forging the Peninsulas, 316; Jude Wanniski, The Way the World Works (New York: Basic Books, 1978), 116-48; Allan Nevins and Frank E. Hill, Ford: Decline and Rebirth, 1933-1962 (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1963), 4.

12. McConnell, Forging the Peninsulas, 320.

13. Alan Reynolds, "What Do We Know about the Great Crash?" National Review (November 9, 1979), 1416-21.

14. McConnell, Forging the Peninsulas, 326.

15. Walter E. Williams, The State Against Blacks (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982), 94-95.

16. "Study: Forced Unionism Hurts Families," The Unreported News, May 7, 1995, p. 2.

17. McConnell, Forging the Peninsulas, 348-49.

18. Lynne Deur and Sara Michel, The Making of Michigan (Spring Lake, Mich.: River Road Publications, 1989).

19. Ibid., 51.

20. Ibid., 66.

21. Ibid., 76.

22. Ibid., 107.

23. Haeger, Astor, 209-13; Herman J. Viola, Thomas L. McKenney: Architect of America’s Early Indian Policy, 1816-1830 (Chicago: Swallow Press, 1974), 54-61.

24. Viola, McKenney, 80.

25. Deur and Michel, The Making of Michigan, 149, 151.

26. Parks, Democracy’s Railroads, 125.

27. Ibid., 225.

28. Deur and Michel, The Making of Michigan, 156.

29. Ibid., 194.

30. Ibid., 211.

31. Ibid., 219.

32. Albro Martin, Enterprise Denied: Origins of the Decline of American Railroads, 1897-1917 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1971); Willis F. Dunbar and George S. May, Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1980), 522.

33. Deur and Michel, The Making of Michigan, 234.

34. Ibid., 234.

35. Benjamin G. Rader, "Federal Taxation in the 1920s: A Reexamination," The Historian 33 (May 1971).

36. Deur and Michel, The Making of Michigan, 240.

37. Reynolds, "What Do We Know about the Great Crash?" 1416-21.

38. The misery index can be tabulated by adding inflation and unemployment percentages. To compare rates for presidents, see U. S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States.

39. Peter Temin, Did Monetary Forces Cause the Great Depression? (New York, W. W. Norton, 1976), 4, 32.

40. Deur and Michel, The Making of Michigan, 241; Murray N. Rothbard, "Herbert Hoover and the Myth of Laissez-Faire," in Ronald Radosh and Murray N. Rothbard, A New History of Leviathan: Essays on the Rise of the American Corporate State (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1972), 111-45; Joan Hoff Wilson, Herbert Hoover (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1975); William E. Leuchtenberg, Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), 10-11; "FDR’s Disputed Legacy," Time, February 1, 1982, p. 23.

41. Deur and Michel, The Making of Michigan, 243.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid., 244.

44. Ibid., 259.

45. Jean F. Blashfield, Awesome Almanac: Michigan (Fontana, Wisc.: B & B Publications, 1993), 11; and Arthur Pound, Detroit: Dynamic City (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1940), 244. Thanks go to Stephen Burd for helping me get these statistics.

46. "Flint Scores Big in Garbage Savings," Michigan Privatization Report (Summer 1994), 1.

47. Stephen Moore and Dean Stansel, A Prosperity Agenda for Michigan Cities, Mackinac Center for Public Policy, November 1993.

48. Deur and Michel, The Making of Michigan, 263.

49. John C. Taylor, Fixing the Roads: A Blueprint for Michigan Transportation Infrastructure Policy, Mackinac Center for Public Policy, April 1995, 18.

50. David B. McConnell, Discover Michigan (Hillsdale, Mich.: Hillsdale Educational Publishers, 1989).

51. Ibid., 57.

52. Ibid., 101.

53. Taylor, Fixing the Roads, 8, 18.

54. JoEllen Vinyard, Michigan: The World Around Us (New York: Macmillan/McGraw Hill, 1992).

55. Ibid., 61-65, 68-72, 76-80, 90-93.

56. Howard H. Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising (reprint of the 1947 edition, Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1994), 1-14; Viola, McKenney, 143.

57. Vinyard, Michigan, 101.

58. Dunbar and May, Michigan, 81-82.

59. Vinyard, Michigan, 121. McConnell’s account is more accurate. He tells the students that a massacre occurred. See McConnell, Discover Michigan, 48.

60. Vinyard, Michigan, 125; Dunbar and May, Michigan, 178.

61. Viola, McKenney, 148.

62. Ibid., 147.

63. Vinyard, Michigan, 94-95.

64. Ibid., 97; James A. Rawley, The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A History (New York: W. W. Norton, 1981); and Philip D. Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969).

65. Vinyard, Michigan, 169-76, 187-91.

66. Ibid., 194-96. Included in the 49 lines devoted to women are nine lines of quotation and analysis from Anna Howard Shaw, an advocate of woman suffrage, which begin the chapter.

67. Ibid., 211-27.

68. Ibid., 249; Michael Sanera and Burton Folsom, "Enviromania in the Textbooks," Viewpoint, Mackinac Center for Public Policy, August 7, 1995.

69. Sanera and Folsom, "Environmania in the Textbooks." See also Laura Parker, "Great Lakes Cleanup," Detroit News, April 16, 1995.

70. Vinyard, Michigan, 214.

71. Ibid., 223.