1 Dan D. Goldhaber, "The Mystery of Good Teaching: Surveying the Evidence on Student Achievement and Teachers’ Characteristics," Education Next 2, no. 1 (2002), http://www.hoover.org/publications/ednext/3368021.html (accessed June 21, 2008); Dan D. Goldhaber, "Teacher Pay Reforms: The Political Implications of Recent Research," Center for American Progress (2006), http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2006/12/pdf/ teacher_pay_report.pdf (accessed June 21, 2008); Matthew G. Springer, Michael J. Podgursky, Jessica L. Lewis, Mark W.Ehlert, Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar et al., Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) Program: Year One Program Evaluation Report (National Center for Performance Incentives, 2008), 16, http://www.tea.state.tx.us/opge/progeval/TeacherIncentive/ TEEG_020808.pdf (accessed June 21, 2008).

2 Eric Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin, "How to Improve the Supply of High Quality Teachers," in Brookings Papers on Education Policy 2004, ed. Diane Ravitch (Brookings Institution, 2004).

3 Ibid. See similar findings in William L. Sanders and June Rivers, "Research Progress Report: Cumulative and Residual Effects of Teachers on Future Student Academic Achievement: Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System" (University of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center, 1996), http://www.cgp.upenn.edu/pdf/Sanders_Rivers-TVASS _teacher%20effects.pdf (accessed June 21, 2008).

4 Dan D. Goldhaber, "The Mystery of Good Teaching: Surveying the Evidence on Student Achievement and Teachers’ Characteristics," Education Next 2, no. 1 (2002).

5 Steven G. Rivkin, Eric Hanushek, and John F. Kain, "Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement," Econometrica 73, no. 2 (2005); R.F. Ferguson and H. F. Ladd, "How and Why Money Matters: An Analysis of Alabama Schools," in Holding Schools Accountable, Helen F. Ladd, editor, Washington: Brookings (1996); Dan D. Goldhaber, "Everyone’s Doing It, but What Does Teacher Testing Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?" (Urban Institute, 2007), http://www.caldercenter.org/PDF/1001072_everyones_doing.PDF (accessed June 21, 2008).

6 Hanushek and Rivkin, "How to Improve the Supply of High Quality Teachers"; Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain, "Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement"; Goldhaber, "Everyone’s Doing It, but What Does Teacher Testing Tell Us About Teacher Effectiveness?"; Goldhaber, "The Mystery of Good Teaching: Surveying the Evidence on Student Achievement and Teachers’ Characteristics."

7 Marc Holley, "A Teacher Quality Primer for Michigan School Officials, State Policymakers, Media and Residents," Michigan School Management Series (Midland: Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2008), 12-15; Holley, "A Teacher Quality Primer," 13, citing "Core of Common Data" (National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2008), http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/ (accessed May 8, 2008) and "Overview of BLS Statistics on Inflation and Consumer Spending" (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008), CPI Inflation Calculator, http://www.bls.gov/bls/ inflation.htm (accessed June 11, 2008).

8 Ryan S. Olson, "Michigan Rankings on National Education Test Fall in 8th Grade, Stagnate in 4th; Proficiency Scores Flat," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2007), http://www.mackinac.org/9010 (accessed June 16, 2008).

9 "Core of Common Data" (National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2008), http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/ (accessed June 21, 2008).

10 C.M. Hoxby & A. Leigh (2005), "Wage Distortion: Why America’s Top Female College Graduates Aren’t Teaching," Education Next, Spring, p. 50-56, (p. 56); Podgursky and Solmon.

11 Carolyn Kelley, Herbert Heneman, III, and Anthony Milanoswki, "Teacher Motivation and School-Based Performance Awards," Education Administration Quarterly, 202, no. 38 (2002).

12 U.S.Department of Education, "Teacher Incentive Fund: Awards," http://www.ed.gov/programs/ teacherincentive/awards.html (accessed June 21, 2008); Michael Podgursky and Matthew G. Springer, "Teacher Performance Pay: A Review" (National Center on Performance Incentives, 2006), http://www.performanceincentives.org/data/files/news/PapersNews/Podgursky_and_Springer_2006_Revised.pdf (accessed June 20, 2008).

13 David N. Figlio and D.N. Lawrence & L. Kenny (2006), "Individual Teacher Incentives and Student Performance," National Bureau of Economic Research, http://www.nber.org/papers/w12627.pdf?new_window=1 (accessed June 21, 2008); Marcus A. Winters, Gary Ritter, Ryan Marsh, Jay P. Greene, and Marc Holley, "The Impact of Performance Pay for Public School Teachers: Theory and Evidence," http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/page/portal/ ifoContent/N/neucesifo/CONFERENCES/SC_CONF_2008/ei08/Papers/ei08_Winters.pdf (accessed June 21, 2008); Podgursky and Springer, "Teacher Performance Pay: A Review."

14 Gary W. Ritter et al., "Year Two Evaluation of the Achievement Challenge Pilot Project in the Little Rock Public School District" (Department of Education Reform, University of Arkansas, 2008), http://uark.edu/ua/der/Research/ merit_pay/year_two/Full_Report_with_Appendices.pdf (accessed June 22, 2008).

15 Marcus A. Winters et al., "An Evaluation of Teacher Performance Pay in Arkansas," (Department of Education Reform, University of Arkansas, 2007), http://www.uark.edu/ua/der/Research/performance_pay_ar.html (accessed June 22, 2008); Gary W. Ritter et al., "Year Two Evaluation of the Achievement Challenge Pilot Project in the Little Rock Public School District."

16 Charles T. Clotfelter and Helen F. Ladd, "Recognizing and Rewarding Success in Public Schools" in Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in Education, Helen F. Ladd, editor, Brookings: Washington, D.C., (1996); Lewis C. Solmon and Michael Podgursky, "The Pros and Cons of Performance-Based Compensation" (Milken Family Foundation, 2000), http://www.mff.org/pubs/Pros_cons.pdf (accessed June 22, 2008); Carolyn Kelley, Herbert Heneman, III, and Anthony Milanoswki, "Teacher Motivation and School-Based Performance Awards" (Educational Administration Quarterly, 2002), 38: 372-401, eaq.sagepub.com.

17 "What is TAP?" (National Institute for Excellence in Teaching), http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache: ITLBnZIhyzYJ:www.talentedteachers.org/tap.taf%3F page%3 Dwhatistap+http://www.talentedteachers.org/ tap.taf%3Fpage%3 Dwhatistap&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us (accessed August 22, 2008).

18 "More Than 60 Schools Join Teacher Advancement Program" (National Institute for Excellence in Teaching), http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:VZv_h5ET6AcJ:www.talentedteachers.org/ newsroom.taf%3F page%3Dtapnews_article291+http://www.talentedteachers.org/ newsroom.taf%3F page%3 Dtapnews_article291&hl=en&ct=clnk& cd=1&gl=us (accessed August 22, 2008).

19 "TAP School Districts" (National Institute for Excellence in Teaching), http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:LiDsqh0MjL8J:www.talentedteachers.org/ tap.taf%3Fpage%3Dtapschool_locations+http://www.talentedteachers.org/tap.taf%3Fpage%3D tapschool_locations&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us (accessed August 22, 2008).

20 "Four Elements of TAP" (National Institute for Excellence in Teaching), http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:9yiu787IsRwJ:www.talentedteachers.org/ tap.taf%3Fpage%3Dfourelements+http://www.talentedteachers.org/ tap.taf%3Fpage%3D fourelements&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us (accessed August 22, 2008).

21 "What is the Teacher Advancement Program?" (National Institute for Excellence in Teaching), http://64.233.167.104/search?q=cache:ITLBnZIhyzYJ:www.talentedteachers.org/ tap.taf%3Fpage%3Dwhatistap+http://www.talentedteachers.org/ tap.taf%3Fpage%3Dwhatistap&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us (accessed August 22, 2008).

22 "Memorandum of Understanding Between the Chicago Board of Education and Chicago Teachers Union, Local No. 1, AFT, AFL-CIO" (Chicago Teachers Union), http://www.ctunet.com/assets/Memorandum%20of%20Understanding.pdf, (accessed August 21, 2008).

23 "Chicago Public Schools Recognizing Excellence in Academic Leadership" (Center for Educator Compensation Reform), 2, http://www.cecr.ed.gov/initiatives/profiles/pdfs/Chicago.pdf (accessed August 21, 2008).

24 "CPS Announces First Cohort for R.E.A.L. Program" (Chicago Public Schools), http://clear.cps.k12.il.us/AboutCPS/PressReleases/May_2007/ Real%20TIF.htm (accessed August 21, 2008); "Chicago Public Schools Recognizing Excellence in Academic Leadership" (Center for Educator Compensation Reform), 1-2, http://www.cecr.ed.gov/initiatives/profiles/pdfs/ Chicago.pdf (accessed August 21, 2008).

25 "Chicago Public Schools Recognizing Excellence in Academic Leadership" (Center for Educator Compensation Reform), 2, http://www.cecr.ed.gov/initiatives/profiles/pdfs/Chicago.pdf (accessed August 21, 2008)

26 Denver Public Schools, "Denver Teachers Embrace Professional Compensation System" (March 19, 2004) http://www.dpsk12.org/news/press/2004/03/19e.shtml (accessed August 21, 2008), Denver Classroom Teacher’s Association "Straight Talk about ProComp: A Primer and Refresher," http://www.denverclassroom.org/ contract/ProComp/ProComp_Info.html (accessed August 21, 2008).

27 Benjamin DeGrow, "Denver’s ProComp and Teacher Compensation Reform in Colorado" (Independence Institute, 2007), 2, http://www.i2i.org/articles/IP_5_2007.pdf (accessed June 22, 2008).

28 Stephen Bowen, "Reforming Teacher Pay in Maine — Part I: How Alternative Teacher Compensation Systems are Improving Student Outcomes," (The Maine View, 2008) http://www.mainepolicy.org/library/resources/87.pdf (accessed June 26, 2008).

29 "Straight Talk about ProComp: A Primer and Refresher," 2.

30 "ProComp at a Glance: A Quick Reference Handbook," (Denver Public Schools Professional Compensation System for Teachers, 2008). http://www.dpsk12.org/manila/programs/denverprocomp/ProCompHandbook.pdf (accessed June 26, 2008).

31 Ibid., 3.

32 "2007-2008 ProComp Payments" (Denver Public Schools Professional Compensation System for Teachers, 2008), http://denverprocomp.org/paychart (accessed June 26, 2008).

33 1963 Const Art 6, § 11.

34 Holley, A Teacher Quality Primer, 120-23.

35 "Project EXCELL!: Teacher Incentive Fund Grant Implementation Manual" (Amphitheater Unified School District, 2007), 15, http://www.amphi.com/departments/teachlearn/projexcell/files/ 61CE0CCC74B94CDC85C1A52CFC85497D.pdf (accessed June 28, 2008).

36 Holley, A Teacher Quality Primer, 70-74.

37 "Measures of Academic Progress" (Northwest Evaluation Association), http://www.nwea.org/assessments/map.asp (accessed August 21, 2008).

38 "Assessment System: Analytical Tools" (Northwest Evaluation Association), http://www.nwea.org/tools/index.asp (accessed August 21, 2008).

39 John Cronin, "A Study of the Alignment of the NWEA RIT Scale with the Michigan Assessment System" (Northwest Evaluation Association, 2007), http://www.nwea.org/assets/research/state/Michigan%20Alignment% 20Report%205.22.07.pdf (accessed June 28, 2008).

40 "MEAP Assessment Administrator Manual: Grades 3-9" (Michigan Department of Education, 2007), http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/MEAP_Admin_Manual_ F07_FINAL_205351_7.pdf (accessed August 21, 2008).

41 MAP for Primary Grades" (Northwest Evaluation Association), http://www.nwea.org/assessments/primary.asp (accessed August 27, 2008).

42 "NWEA Members: Michigan" (Northwest Evaluation Association, 2008), http://www.nwea.org/ about/members.asp?stateCode=MI (accessed August 21, 2008).

43 "Straight Talk about ProComp: A Primer and Refresher"; "Memorandum of Understanding/Chicago."

44 MCL 38.71 et. seq.

45 MCL 38.101.

46 MCL 38.74.

47 MCL 423.201 et seq.

48 MCL 423.215(3)(h).

49 See generally 1963 Const Art 9, § 29.

50 Ken Braun, "An Analysis of Proposal 5: The ‘K-16’ Michigan Ballot Measure," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2006), 4-5, http://www.mackinac.org/archives/2006/s2006-05.pdf (accessed August 10, 2008).

51 See, e.g., Public Schools of Petoskey – Northern Michigan Educ Ass’n 2007-2009 Collective Bargaining Agreement at § 2.4(G) (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2007), 28, http://www.mackinac.org/archives/epi/contracts/ 24070_2009-08-31_NMEA_ MEA_E_X.PDF (accessed August 22, 2008).

52 Gary W. Ritter et al., "Year Two Evaluation of the Achievement Challenge Pilot Project in the Little Rock Public School District" (Department of Education Reform, University of Arkansas, 2008), http://uark.edu/ua/der/ Research/merit_pay/year_two/ Full_Report_with_Appendices.pdf (accessed June 28, 2008).

53 20 U.S.C. § 1232g.

54 Ryan S. Olson and Michael D. LaFaive, "A Michigan School Money Primer for Policymakers, School Officials, Media and Residents," (The Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2007), 78, http://www.mackinac.org/archives/ 2007/s2007-04.pdf, (accessed August 10, 2008).

55 MCL 38.71(3).

56 2008 Public Act 268.

57 "December 2007 REP Summary Reports" (Center for Educational Performance & Information), "Headcount and FTE," http://www.michigan.gov/cepi/0,1607,7-113-21423_ 30446-190900--,00.html (accessed August 22, 2008).

58 "2007-2008 Pupil Headcount Data (SRSD)" (Center for Educational Performance & Information), "District Enrollment Data: >FALL 07 K-12 ENROLLMENTS.xls," http://www.michigan.gov/cepi/0,1607,7-113-21423_ 30451_30460-194819--,00.html (accessed August 22, 2008).

59 "December 2007 REP Summary Reports," "Headcount and FTE"; "2007-2008 Pupil Headcount Data (SRSD)," "District Enrollment Data: >FALL 07 K-12 ENROLLMENTS.xls."