181 "The Four Elements of TAP" (National Institute for Excellence in Teaching, 2008), www.talentedteachers.org/tap.taf?page=fourelements (accessed May 19, 2008).

182 Matthew Springer, Dale Ballou and Art Peng, "Impact of the Teacher Advancement Program on Student Test Score Gains: Findings from an Independent Appraisal" (National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008), Abstract, www.performanceincentives.org/data/files/news/PapersNews/Springer_et_al_2008.pdf (accessed July 9, 2008).

183 Ibid.

184 "The Secretary’s Fifth Annual Report on Teacher Quality: A Highly Qualified Teacher in Every School Classroom."

185 Ibid.

186 Ibid.

187 Ibid.

188 Castle and Jacobs, "State Teacher Policy Yearbook — Progress on Teacher Quality."

189 Ibid., 78.

190 "Frequently Asked Questions" (NYC Teaching Fellows, 2008), www.nyctf.org/f_a_q/program_faq.html#aftertwoyears (accessed May 16, 2008).

191 "Program History and Statistics," (NYC Teaching Fellows, 2007), www.nyctf.org/about/history.html (accessed May 21, 2008).

192 Ibid.

193 See George C. Leef’s editorial from 2002 on Teach for America: "'Teach for America' Success Points the Way to Teacher Certification Reform" (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2002), www.mackinac.org/4045 (accessed May 21, 2008); "Top Grads from Class of 2002 Turn to Service," (Teach For America, 2002), www.teachforamerica.org/ newsroom/documents/TeachForAmerica_News_20020507.html (accessed May 21, 2008).

194 Bess Keller, "Teach for America Operation to Close in Detroit," Education Week, April 21, 2004, www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2004/04/21/32tfa.h23.html?qs=Teach+for+America+Operation+to+Close+in+Detroit (accessed July 9, 2008).

195 "Regions" (Teach For America, 2008), www.teachforamerica.org/about/regions/index.htm (accessed May 21, 2008).

196 Stotsky, "Teacher Licensure Tests: Their Relationship to Mathematics Teachers' Academic Competence and Student Achievement in Mathematics."

197 Ibid.

198 Castle and Jacobs, "State Teacher Policy Yearbook — Progress on Teacher Quality."

199 Ibid., 40.

200 "American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence" (American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence, 2008), www.abcte.org/ (accessed May 21, 2008).

201 Ibid.

202 Ibid.

203 Steven Glazerman and Christina Tuttle, "An Evaluation of American Board Teacher Certification: Progress and Plans" (Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., 2006), www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/28/09/9c.pdf (accessed May 21, 2008).

204 Steven Glazerman, Christina Tuttle and Gail Baxter, "School Principals' Perspectives on the Passport to Teaching" (Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., 2006), www.abcte.org/files/2006_principal_survey.pdf (accessed May 21, 2008).

205 John E. Chubb and Terry M. Moe, Politics, Markets, and America's Schools (Brookings Institution, 1990), 187.

206 Jessica Levin, Jennifer Mulhern and Joan Schunck, "Unintended Consequences: The Case for Reforming the Staffing Rules in Urban Teachers' Union Contracts" (The New Teacher Project, 2005), www.tntp.org/newreport/TNTP%20Unintended%20Consequences.pdf (accessed June 26, 2008).

207 Frederick Hess and Coby Loup, "The Leadership Limbo: Teacher Labor Agreements in America’s Fifty Largest School Districts" (The Thomas Fordham Institute, 2008), www.edexcellence.net/doc/leadershiplimbo/the_leadership_limbo.pdf (accessed June 26, 2008).

208 Steven Adamowski, Susan Bowles Therriault and Anthony Cavanna, "The Autonomy Gap: Barriers to Effective School Leadership" (Thomas B. Fordham Institute, 2007), 17, http://eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/ content_storage_01/0000019b/80/2b/6f/62.pdf (accessed June 25, 2008).

209 Ibid., 18.

210 Loeb and Reininger, "Public Policy and Teacher Labor Markets: What We Know and Why It Matters"; Murnane and Steele, "What Is the Problem? The Challenge of Providing Effective Teachers for All Children"; Hamilton Lankford, Susanna Loeb and James Wyckoff, "Teacher Sorting and the Plight of Urban Schools: A Descriptive Analysis," Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 24, no. 1 (2002); Donald Boyd et al., "Explaining the Short Careers of High-Achieving Teachers in Schools with Low-Performing Students," American Economic Review 95, no. 2 (2005).

211 Marguerite Roza and Paul T. Hill, "How Within-District Spending Inequities Help Some Schools to Fail" (Brookings Institute, 2004); Hanushek and Rivkin, "How to Improve the Supply of High Quality Teachers" also make this point.

212 Roza and Hill, "How Within-District Spending Inequities Help Some Schools to Fail."

213 Ibid.

214 MCL 38.81(1); MCL 38.91(1).

215 MCL 38.71; MSA 15.1971, § 1(4). The Teachers’ Tenure Act generally does not cover teachers in public school academies.

216 MCL 38.81(1); MCL 38.91(1).

217 For similar recommendations, see "Teaching at Risk: Progress and Potholes" (The Teaching Commission), www.nctq.org/nctq/images/ttc_teachingatrisk.pdf (accessed July 9, 2008).

218 Weaver, "Opposing View: Reject Federal Pay Mandates." Weaver has argued, "We should invest precious federal dollars in giving all teachers competitive salaries, quality professional development and better working conditions." See also Linda Darling-Hammond, "A Marshall Plan for Teaching," Education Week, January 10, 2007, www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2007/01/10/18hammond.h26.html?print=1 (accessed July 9, 2008).

219 According to the MDE, "During the 3 year period, the teacher shall also receive intensive professional development induction into teaching, based on a professional development plan that is consistent with the requirements of Section 3a of Article II of Act 4 of the Public Acts of the Extra Session of 1937 being Section 38.83a of Michigan Compiled Laws including classroom management and instructional delivery." See "A Few Clarifying Thoughts on Section 1526" (Michigan Department of Education, 1997) www.michigan.gov/mde/0,1607,7-140-5235_6947-32578--,00.html, (accessed May 21, 2008).

220 Michael S. Garet et al., "What Makes Professional Development Effective? Results from a National Sample of Teachers," American Education Research Journal 38, no. 4 (2001); Heather C. Hill, "Learning in the Teaching Workforce," The Future of Children 17, no. 1 (2007).

221 Loeb and Reininger, "Public Policy and Teacher Labor Markets: What We Know and Why It Matters."

222 Hill, "Learning in the Teaching Workforce."

223 MCL 380.1250.