1 "Electric Power Annual 2006 — State Data Tables: 1990 — 2006 Revenue from Retail Sales of Electricity by State by Sector by Provider (EIA-861)," U.S. Energy Information Administration, www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sprdshts.html (accessed May 12, 2008).

2 National Economic Research Associates, Inc., "Competitive Electricity Markets: The Benefits for Consumers and the Environment,"
February 2008.

3 Orjiakor N. Isiogu, Monica Martinez, and Steven A. Transeth, "Status of Electric Competition in Michigan: Report for Calendar Year 2007," (Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Labor & Economic Growth, 2008), 2, www.dleg.state.mi.us/mpsc/electric/restruct/reports/compreport 2007.pdf, (accessed May 9, 2008).

4 "State Electricity Profiles 2006: Table 3. Top Five Retailers of Electricity, with End Use Sectors, 2006: Michigan," (U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, U.S. Department of Energy, 2007), 112, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/electricity/06292006.pdf, (accessed April 18, 2008) and "State Electricity Profiles 2006: Table 1. 2006 Summary Statistics: Michigan," (U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, U.S. Department of Energy, 2007), 111, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/electricity/06292006.pdf, (accessed April 18, 2008).

5 "State Electricity Profiles 2006," (Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, U.S. Department of Energy, 2007), 113, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/electricity/06292006.pdf, (accessed April 18, 2008).

6 Ibid.

7 "State Electricity Profiles 2006: Table 5. Electric Power Net Generation by Primary Energy Source and Industry Sector, 1990, 1995, and 2001 Through 2006: Michigan," (U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, U.S. Department of Energy, 2007), 113, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/FTPROOT/electricity/06292006.pdf, (accessed April 18, 2008).

8 "Staff Report on Electric Industry Restructuring," (Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Labor & Economic Growth, 1996), www.cis.state.mi.us/mpsc/reports/elerstrc.txt, (accessed May 9, 2008).

9 Isiogu, Martinez, and Transeth, "Status of Electric Competition in Michigan: Report for Calendar Year 2007," Chart 3, Chart 5.

10 Authors’ calculations based on "Electric Power Annual 2006 — State Data Tables: 1990 — 2006 Average Price by State by Provider (EIA-861)."

11 "State Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates 1970 Through 2005: Table 1. Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates by Source, Selected Years, 1970-2005, United States," (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2008), 23, www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_prices/notes/pr_print2005.pdf, (accessed May 13, 2008) and "State Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates 1970 Through 2005: Table 1. Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates by Source, Selected Years, 1970-2005, Michigan," (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2008), 163, www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/states/sep_prices/notes/pr_print2005.pdf, (accessed May 13, 2008).

12 J. Peter Lark, Robert Nelson, and Laura Chappelle, "Status of Electric Competition in Michigan," (Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Labor & Economic Growth, 2005), Attachment 8, www.michigan.gov/documents/elec-comp05_115196_7.pdf, (accessed May 1, 2008).

13 The Wall Street Journal, WSJ.com, Markets Data Center, Interactive Charting (monthly frequency, single decade, start date May 8, 1998), http://online.wsj.com/quotes/stock_charting.html?symbol=DTE&type=usstock&osy.

14 Authors’ calculations based on Isiogu, Martinez, and Transeth, "Status of Electric Competition in Michigan: Report for Calendar Year 2007,"
Chart 3, Chart 5.

15 Authors’ calculations based on "Electric Power Annual 2006 — State Data Tables: 1990 — 2006 Average Price by State by Provider (EIA-861)."

16 Ibid.

17 Authors’ calculations based on Ibid.

18 Ibid.

19 Mark Hornbeck and Charlie Cain, "Deregulation Shorts Out: Electric Choices Falter in Michigan," The Detroit News, www.detnews.com/2005/specialreport/0506/05/A01-203814.htm (accessed May 11, 2008).

20 Authors’ calculations based on Lark, Nelson, and Chappelle, "Status of Electric Competition in Michigan," Attachment 4.

21 Ibid.

22 Authors’ calculations based on Ibid., Attachment 1.

23 Ibid.

24 J. Peter Lark, "Michigan’s 21st Century Electric Energy Plan," (Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Labor & Economic Growth, 2007), www.michigan.gov/documents/mpsc/21stcenturyenergyplan_ 185274_7.pdf, (accessed May 1, 2008).

25 Judy Palnau, "News Release: MPSC Staff Issues Report on Michigan’s Future Electric Capacity Needs, Finds Additional Electric Generation Capacity May Be Needed after 2009," Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Labor & Economic Growth, www.michigan.gov/mpsc/0,1607,7-159--133381--,00.html (accessed May 11, 2008).

26 Caroline M. Sallee and Patrick L. Anderson, "Benchmarking for Success: A Comparison of State Infrastructure," (Anderson Economic Group, LLC, December 2006), 2, www.andersoneconomicgroup.com/modules/Content/dl.php?format=application/pdf&filename=Doc2013.pdf(accessed May 14, 2008).

27 "Wholesale Competition in Regions With Organized Electric Markets: Comment of the Federal Trade Commission before the United States of America Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, April 17, 2008, in FERC Docket No. Rm07-19-000 and Docket No. Ad07-7-000," (Federal Trade Commission, 2008), 33, www.ftc.gov/be/v070014b.pdf, (accessed May 11, 2008).

28 "Michigan Electricity Profile, 2006 Edition: Table 8. Retail Sales, Revenue, and Average Retail Price by Sector, 1990 Through 2006," U.S. Energy Information Administration, www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/michigan.html (accessed May 13, 2008).

29 National Economic Research Associates, Inc., "Competitive Electricity Markets: The Benefits for Consumers and the Environment,"
February 2008.

30 For discussion of the environmental impacts of renewable energies, see Diane Katz, "The Trade-Offs of Renewable Energy," MichiganScience, November 15, 2006, 10-15, www.mackinac.org/archives/2006/ms2006-01.pdf (accessed May 1, 2008).

31 Michigan Electric and Gas Association, "MEGA Position on 21st Century Energy Plan (Draft)," 5, March 6, 2007.

32 Blank v. Department of Corrections, 462 Mich 103, 116.

33 "Official Energy Statistics from the U.S. Government: State Energy Profiles: Michigan," U.S. Energy Information Administration, http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=MI (accessed May 1, 2008).

34 Michigan Electric and Gas Association, "MEGA Position on 21st Century Energy Plan (Draft)," 12, March 6, 2007.

35 Lark, "Michigan’s 21st Century Electric Energy Plan," 2.

36 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, October 2005.

37 Authors’ calculations based on "Michigan Electricity Profile, 2006 Edition: Table 4, Electric Power Industry Capability by Primary Energy Source, 1990 Through 2006 " U.S. Energy Information Administration, www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/st_profiles/michigan.html(accessed May 13, 2008).

38 Ibid.

39 "Annual Energy Outlook 2006," Energy Information Administration, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf/brochures/aeo2006/aeo%20brochure5-12-2006.pdf (accessed May 14, 2008).

40 Diane S. Katz, personal communication with Michael D. LaFaive and James Hohman, May 5, 2008.

41 Michael D. LaFaive and Michael J. Hicks, "MEGA: A Retrospective Assessment," The Mackinac Center for Public Policy, April 12, 2005, www.mackinac.org/7097 (accessed April 20, 2008).

42 House Bill 5524.