1  "Bishop Wants RTW on Ballot," MIRS Capitol Capsule, July 17, 2007, http://www.mirsnews.com/capsule.php?gid=785 (accessed August 19, 2007).

2  Eric Morath, "Karmanos rails against unions," The Detroit News, April 20, 2007, http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070420/BIZ/704200365/1001 (accessed August 19, 2007). Parenthetical text appears in the original.

3  Hunter, "Michigan Labor Law: What Every Citizen Should Know," 5.

4  Ibid.

5  Davenport v. Washington Educ. Ass’n, __ U.S. __, __; 127 S. Ct. 2372, 2376 (2007).

6  Hunter, "Michigan Labor Law: What Every Citizen Should Know," 7.

7  U.S. Const. art. VI, § 2.

8  Crosby v. Nat’l Foreign Trade Council, 530 US 363, 372-73 (2000) (citations and footnote omitted).

9  Local 514, Transport Workers Union of America v. Keating, 212 F.Supp.2d 1319, 1325 (E.D. Ok. 2002).

10  Ry. Employes’ Dep’t. v. Hanson, 351 U.S. 225 (1956).

11  Ibid., 233.

12  See 45 U.S.C. § 152 Eleventh (a).

13  29 U.S.C. § 164(b).

14  Author’s calculations based on http://www.ok.gov/~elections/02sq.pdf (accessed August 17, 2007).

15  Local 514, Transport Workers Union of America v. Keating, 212 F.Supp.2d 1319, 1323 (E.D. Ok. 2002).

16  Ibid., 1324.

17  Ibid., 1326.

18  Ibid., 1327 n. 6.

19  Ibid., 1326-27.

20  Ibid., 1328 (citing Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 75, § 11a).

21  Ibid., 1331.

22  Okla. Const. art. XXIII, § 1A (B)(1).

23  Lincoln Federal Labor Union No. 19129, American Federation of Labor v. Northwestern Iron & Metal Co., 335 U.S. 525 (1949).

24  American Federation of Labor, Arizona State Federation of Labor v. American Sash & Door Co., 335 U.S. 538 (1949).

25  Lincoln Federal, 335 U.S. at 527-28 (footnote omitted).

26  Ibid., 528.

27  Ibid., 532.

28  American Sash, 335 U.S. at 540.

29  Ibid.

30  Ibid.

31  Ibid., 541.

32  Local 514, Transport Workers Union of America v. Keating, 358 F.3d 743, 753 (2004).

33  Ibid., 754.

34  Ibid.

35  Ibid., 744.

36  Ibid.

37  Local 514, Transport Workers Union of America v. Keating, 83 P.3d 835, 840 (Oklahoma 2003).

38  Ibid., 845-46 (Opala, J., concurring).

39  Cone v. Nevada Service Employees Union/SEIU Local 1107, 998 P.2d 1178 (Nevada 2000).

40  Ibid., 1180.

41  Ibid., 1182-83 (internal citations and footnote omitted).

42  Branch v. Myrtle Beach, 532 S.E.2d 289 (South Carolina 2000).

43  Ibid., 291.

44  Keeble v. City of Alcoa, 319 S.W.2d 249 (Tennessee 1958).

45  Ibid., 251.

46  Ibid., 250.

47  MCL § 169.255(6).