1. United States Telecom Association, Washington, D.C., http://usta.org.

  2. Federal Communications Commission, “Broadband Internet Access in OECD Countries: A Comparative Analysis,” Washington, D.C., October 2003.

  3. Federal Communications Commission, “High-Speed Services for Internet Access: Status as of December 31, 2003,” June 2004.

  4. Federal Communications Commission, “Trends in Telephone Service,” May 2004.

  5. United States Telecom Association, “Statement on Early Success of Commercial Negotiations in the Telecom Sector,” Washington, D.C., April 5, 2004.

  6. Thierer, A., “Unnatural Monopoly: Critical Moments in the Development of the Bell System Monopoly,” Washington, D.C., The Cato Journal, Fall 1994.

  7. Ibid.

  8. Telecommunications Association of Michigan, “The Michigan Telecommunications Act Handbook,” 2003 edition.

  9. Ibid.

  10. Ibid, quoting Michigan Public Service Commission, Citizens Telephone Co. of Grand Rapids, PUR 1921 E: 308, 315.

  11. Thierer, A., “Unnatural Monopoly: Critical Moments in the Development of the Bell System Monopoly,” Washington, D.C., The Cato Journal, Fall 1994.

  12. Ibid.

  13. Crandall, Robert W., “A Somewhat Better Connection,” Regulation, Summer 2002, p. 24.

  14. Reed, Lawrence, “Seven Principles of Sound Public Policy,” The Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Midland, MI, Oct. 2001.

  15. Federal Communications Commission, “Statistics of the Long Distance Telecommunications Industry,” May 2003.

  16. Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association in Federal Communications Commission, “Trends in Telephone Service,” May 2004.

  17. Federal Communications Commission, “Trends in Telephone Service,” May 2004.

  18. Ibid.

  19. Adkinson Jr., William F., Heinecke, Erik T., Lenard, Thomas M., “The Digital Economy Fact Book,” The Progress and Freedom Foundation, 2003.

  20. Ibid.

  21. Ibid.

  22. Gattuso, James and Michel, Norbert, “Are U.S. Telecom Networks Public Property?,” The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., April 8, 2004.

  23. Ibid.

  24. Michigan Public Service Commission, “Status of Telecommunications Competition in Michigan,” May 2004.

  25. Ibid.

  26. Federal and State Staff for the Federal-State Joint Board on Universal Service in CC Docket No. 96-45, Universal Service Monitoring Report CC Docket No. 98-202, 2003.

  27. Cox, W. Michael, and Alm, R., “The Economy at Light Speed: Technology and Growth in the Information Age and Beyond,” 1996, p. 10.

  28. Crandall, R.W., and Sidak, J.G., “Competition and Regulatory Policies for Interactive Broadband Networks,” California Law Review, 1995.

  29. Federal Communications Commission, “Annual Report and Analysis of Competitive Market Conditions With Respect to Commercial Mobile Services,” Washington, D.C., 2001.

  30. Michigan Telecommunications Act, Article 1, Sec. 101(1b).

  31. Press Statement of Chairman Michael K. Powell and Commissioners Kathleen Q. Abernathy, Michael J. Copps, Kevin J. Martin and Jonathan S. Adelstein On Triennial Review Next Steps, March 31, 2004.

  32. SBC Communications Inc., “Emergency Petition for Declaratory Ruling, Preemption and for Standstill Order to Preserve the Viability of Commercial Negotiations,” May 3, 2004.

  33. Deutsche Bank, 2Q03 Review, Sept. 2003.