1. The Federal Civil Justice System Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin, July, 1987

  2. Journal of Commerce, June 10, 1986

  3. Time, March 24, 1986

  4. Issue Alert, "Small Business and the Liability Insurance Crisis", United States Small Business Administration, March, 1986

  5. American Bar Association Information Services
    Washington Post, March 5, 1986

  6. Report of the Tort Policy Working Group on the Causes, Extend and Policy Implications of the Current Crisis in Insurance Availability and Affordability, February, 1986; An Update on the Liability Crisis, Tort Policy Working Group, March, 1987

  7. M. Peterson, Civil Juries in the 1980s: Trends in Jury Trials and Verdicts in California and Cook County, Illinois, The Institute for Civil Justice, 1987.

  8. M. Peterson, S. Sarma, M. Shanley, Punitive Damages – Empirical Findings, The Institute for Civil Justice, 1987

  9. Claim File Data Analysis: Technical Analysis of Study Results, ISO Data, December, 1988

  10. J. Kakalik, N. Pace, Costs and Compensation Paid in Tort Litigation, The Institute for Civil Justice, 1986

  11. Tort Policy Working Group, see footnote 6

  12. Civil Juries in the 1980s, see footnote 7

  13. Injury Valuation: Current Award Trends, Jury Verdict Research, Inc., 1986, 1987

  14. Civil Juries in the 1980s, see footnote 7

  15. The Impact of Product Liability, The Conference Board, Inc., 1988

  16. For a history of product liability law, see the Mackinac Center Report by Bradley A. Smith, TortLaw and the Products Liability Insurance Crisis, 1988. For a thorough exploration of the theory of litigation and its impact on society, see Peter W. Huber, Liability – The Legal Revolution and Its Consequences, Basic Books, Inc., 1988. This extraordinary study, written by one of the nation's leading scholars and proponents of litigation reform, offers the most complete analysis to date of the relationship between individual/societal behavior and the litigation system. My study is particularly indebted to the analysis of the consequences of high product liability exposure detailed in Chapter 10, "What is Deterred" (pages 153-171).

  17. Engineer Perspective 1986, Research and Management Foundation of the American Consulting Engineers Council, December, 1986

  18. Insight, "Liability's Creative Clamp Holds Firms to the Status Quo", August 29, 1988

  19. Insight, Id.

  20. R. Lincoln, L. Kaeser, Family Planning Persp., "Whatever Happened to the Contraceptive Revolution", 1988

  21. Huber, see footnote 16

  22. G. Burrill, Biotechnology, "The Keys to Commercialization in Biotechnology", 1987

  23. Insight, see footnote 18

  24. Wall Street Journal, February 4, 1986

  25. Huber, see footnote 16 Wall Street Journal, January 21, 1986

  26. Impact of Product Liability on the Development of New Medical Technologies, Report of the Board of Trustees of the American Medical Association, 1988

  27. Impact of Product Liability, id.

  28. Huber, see footnote 16

  29. Huber, direct quote from page 160, see footnote 16

  30. The Liability Crisis and its Impact on the American Consumer
    American Tort Reform Association, 1987

  31. Tort Policy Working Group, Update, see footnote 6

  32. The Liability Crisis, see footnote 30

  33. Sports Liability News, Aug.-Oct. 1988

  34. Huber, see footnote 16

  35. The Liability Crisis, see footnote 30

  36. See for example the annual study and rankings by Grant Thorton International

  37. Michigan Elliott-Larsen Civil Rights Act of 1977, MCL 37.2101 et seq.
    Michigan Handicappers' Civil Rights Act, MCL 37.1101 et seq.
    Payment of Wages and Fringe Benefits, MCL 408.472 et seq.
    Bullard-Plawecki Employee Right to Know Act, MCL 423.501 et seq.
    Polygraph Protection Act of 1981, MCL 37.202 et seq.
    The Whistleblowers' Protection Act, MCL 15.361 et seq.
    Worker's Disability Compensation Act of 1969, MCL 418.101 et seq.
    Michigan Employment Security Act, MCL 421.1 et seq.

  38. 405 Mich. 638, 275 N.W.2d 511 (1979)

  39. 408 Mich. 579, 292 N.W.2d 880 (1980)

  40. Individual Employment Rights, The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc.
    Labor Relations Reporter, January 31, 1989

  41. 254 Cal.Rptr. 211 (Cal. 1988)

  42. 427 Mich. 415, 398 N.W.2d 327 (1986)

  43. MCL 418.131

  44. The cause of action was established in Schipani v. Ford Motor Co., 102 Mich.App. 606, 302 N.W.2d 307 (1981) and Chamberlain v. Bissell, Inc., 547 F.Supp. 1067 (WD Mich 1982). But more recent cases have strictly limited this potential cause of action. See Loftis v. GT Products, 167 Mich.App.787, 423 N.W.2d 358 (1988); Struble v. Lacks Industries, Inc., 157 Mich.App.169, 403 N.W.2d 71 (1986); Haas v. Montgomery Ward & Co., 812 F.2d 1015 (CA 6, 1987)

  45. 131 Mich.App. 185, 347 N.W.2d 184 (1983)

  46. MCL 600.5040 et.seq.

  47. Journal of Legal Medicine, "Medical Malpractice Crisis the Second Time Around – Why Not Arbitrate", Vol. 8, No. 2 (1987)

  48. MCL 418.864

  49. Michigan Rules of Court, 2.403

  50. MCL 418.131

  51. 254 Cal.Rptr. 211 (Cal. 1988)

  52. American Bar Association Journal, "The 10 Largest Jury Awards in 1988", March, 1989

  53. Becco v. A.J. Foland Co., Court of Appeals Case Nos. 102415-18 and 10230-33