1. Deutsche Bank, 2Q03 Review, Sept. 2003.

  2. Adkinson, Wm. F. Jr., Heinecke, Erik T., and Lenard, Thomas M. “The Digital Economy Fact Book,” Washington, D.C.: The Progress and Freedom Foundation, 5th Edition, 2003.

  3. Flanigan, Matthew J., Telecommunications Industry Association, letter to Federal Communications Commission, Nov. 25, 2002.

  4. Defined as more than 200 kbps in at least one direction.

  5. Federal Communications Commission, “Trends in Telephone Service,” Washington, D.C.: August 2003. www.fcc.gov/wcb/stats.

  6. Ibid.

  7. Viswanathan, S., “Broadband Demand View,” presentation to Federal Communications Commission, April 17, 2003.

  8. Thierer, A., “Unnatural Monopoly: Critical Moments in the Development of the Bell System Monopoly,” Washington, D.C.: The Cato Journal, Fall 1994.

  9. Ibid.

  10. Telecommunications Association of Michigan, “The Michigan Telecommunications Act Handbook,” 2003 Edition.

  11. Ibid, quoting Michigan Public Service Commission, Citizens Telephone Co. of Grand Rapids, PUR 1921 E: 308, 315.

  12. Thierer, Adam D., “Unnatural Monopoly: Critical Moments in the Development of the Bell System Monopoly,” Cato Journal, Fall, 1994.

  13. Ibid.

  14. Crandall, Robert W., “A Somewhat Better Connection,” Regulation, Summer 2002, p. 24.

  15. Thorne, J., “The 1996 Telecom Act: What Went Wrong and Protecting the Broadband Buildout,” Columbia University, September 2001.

  16. Ibid.

  17. AT&T Corp. v. Iowa Utilities Board, 525 U.S. 366 (1999).

  18. Federal Communications Commission, Implementation of the Local Competition Provisions of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, Third Report and Order and Fourth Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking.

  19. United States Telecom Association, et al., v. F.C.C., 290 F.3d 415 (DC Cir. 2003).

  20. Telecommunications Association of Michigan, “Michigan Telecommunications Act Handbook,” 2003 Edition.

  21. Ibid.

  22. Aron, Debra J., direct testimony before the Michigan Public Service Commission, May 2, 2003.

  23. Kovacs, A.M., “The Status of 271 and UNE-Platform in the Regional Bells Territories,” Commerce Capital Markets, Nov. 8, 2002.

  24. Thorne, J., “The 1996 Telecom Act: What Went Wrong and Protecting the Broadband Buildout,” Columbia University, September 2001.

  25. Crandall, Robert W., “Health of the Telecommunications Sector: A Perspective from Investors and Economists,” Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, Feb. 5, 2003.

  26. Hodulik, John et al., “How Much Pain From UNE-P?: Analysis of UNE-P Economics for the Bells,” UBS Warburg Global Equity Research, Aug. 20, 2002.

  27. Quinton, Adam et al., “The Telecommunicator: Telecom Act Seven Years On — The UNE Shock Wave Belatedly Reverberates Around the RBOCs — And How!,” Merrill Lynch Global Securities Research & Economics Group, Sept. 23, 2002.

  28. Precursor Group, “The Incredible Shrinking Wire Line Capex Budgets,” Sept. 12, 2003.

  29. Crandall, Robert W., “Health of the Telecommunications Sector: A Perspective from Investors and Economists,” Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet, Feb. 5, 2003.

  30. Darby, L.F., Eisenach, J.A., Kraemer, J.S., “The CLEC Experiment: Anatomy of a Meltdown,” Washington, D.C.: Progress and Freedom Foundation,” September 2002.

  31. Promotion of Competitive Networks in Local Telecommunications Markets, First Report and Order and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in WT Docket No. 99-217, Oct. 25, 2000.

  32. Federal Communications Commission, “Trends in Telephone Service,” Washington, D.C.: August 2003. www.fcc.gov/wcb/stats.

  33. Federal Communications Commission, “Eighth Annual Report and Analysis of Competitive Market Conditions With Respect to Commercial Mobile Services,” July 14, 2003.

  34. Grant, Peter and Latour, Almar, “Battered Telecoms Face New Challenge: Internet Calling,” Wall Street Journal, Oct. 9, 2003.

  35. Ibid.

  36. Brand X. Internet Services v. FCC, No. 02-70518 (9th Cir.), Oct. 6, 2003.