1. Because this paper was written primarily to inform education reformers about the practical implications of our research on public and private schools, and not to report the results of our research directly, this paper does not provide extensive primary or secondary documentation of our arguments or findings. Readers interested in detailed supporting material can find it in our other publications, especially John E. Chubb and Terry M. Moe, Politics, Markets, and America's Schools (Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1989); John E. Chubb and Terry M. Moe, "Politics, Markets and the Organization of Schools," American Political Science Review, (De­cember 1988): pp. 1065-1087; and John E. Chubb, "Why the Current Wave of School Reform Will Fail," The Public Interest, 90 (Winter 1988): pp. 28-49. In this paper we will document only those arguments or conclusions not documented in our other published work.

  2. U.S. Congressional Budget Office, Trends in Educational Achievement (April 1986), ch. 3; Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education, Youth Indicators 1988: Trends in the Well-Being of American Youth (August 1988): pp. 68-69.

  3. Congressional Budget Office, Trends in Educational Achievement (April 1986), ch. 3.

  4. The College Board, "News from The College Board," (September 20,1988), table entitled, "College-Bound Seniors, SAT Score Averages, 1967-1988."

  5. "Data Bank," Education Week (February 18, 1987): pp. 19-21.

  6. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education, Youth Indicators 1988: Trends in the Well-Being of American Youth (August 1988): p. 52.

  7. Ibid., pp. 52-55.

  8. This and the following examples are discussed in U.S. Congressional Budget Office, Trends in Educational Achievement (April 1986): pp. 43, 46.

  9. William J. Bennett, U.S. Secretary of Education, American Education: Making It Work (April 1988): p. 13.

  10. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. Youth Indicators 1988: Trends in the Well-Being of American Youth (August 1988): pp. 64-65.

  11. Bennett, p. 12.

  12. Barbara Wobejda, "Survey of Math, Science Skills Puts U.S. Students at Bottom," Washington Post (February 1, 1989): pp. Al, 14.

  13. On school reform in the 1960s and 1970s see especially Diane Ravitch, The Troubled Crusade: American Education 194_5-1980 (New York: Basic Books, 1983).

  14. Calculated from the following tables: U.S. Bureau of the Census, "Public Elementary and Secondary School Estimated Finances, 1970 to 1987, and by State, 1987," Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1988 (Washington D.C., 1988): table no. 217; and U.S. Bureau of the Census, "Estimated Public School Expenditures, 1970, and Personal Income, 1968, by States," Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1970 (Washington D.C., 1970): table no. 181.

  15. Bennett, p. 45.

  16. Per pupil current expenditures in Catholic high schools averaged $2,690 in 1987-88. Conversation with Fred Brigham of the National Catholic Education Association, Washington, D.C., February 8, 1989.

  17. Calculated from the following tables: U.S. Bureau of the Census, "Public School Finances, 1975 to 1981, and by State, 1981," Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1982-83 (Washington, D.C., 1982): table no. 27t; and U.S. Bureau of the Census, "Estimated Public School Expenditures, 1970, and Personal Income, 1968, by States," Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1970 (Washington, D.C., 1970): table no. 181.

  18. Salary figures were obtained from: U.S. Bureau of the Census, "Public Elementary and Secondary Schools – Number and Average Salary of Classroom Teachers, 1960 to 1987, and by State, 1987," Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1988 (Washington, D.C., 1988): table no. 211; and U.S. Bureau of the Census, "Public Elementary and Secondary Schools – Estimated Number and Average Salary of Classroom Teachers, States: 1970," Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1970 (Washington, D.C., 1970): table no. 185. Pupil-teacher ratios were obtained from: Eric A. Hanushek, "The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools," Journal of Economic Literature, 24 (September 1986): p. 1148; and for the most recent year, Nancy Protheroe, Educational Research Service, Arlington, Virginia, information provided by phone.

  19. Eric A. Hanushek, "The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools," Journal of Economic Literature, 24 (September 1986): p. 1149.

  20. Glen E. Robinson and Nancy J. Protheroe, Cost of Education: An lnvestment in America's Future (Arlington, Virginia: Educational Research Service, 1987).

  21. Ibid. p. 18.

  22. Bennett, p. 46.

  23. Ibid.

  24. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, "Staff Employed in Public School Systems, by Type or Assignment and by State: Fall 1983," Digest of Education Statistics,1985-86 (Washington, D.C., September 1986): table 47.

  25. On centralization and consolidation in American public education see especially David B. Tyack, The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974); and Ronald I. Campbell, et.al., The Organization andControl ofAmerican Schools, 5th ed. (Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill. 1985).

  26. Bennett, p. 45.

  27. U.S. Congressional Budget Office, Educational Achievement: Explanations and lmpli-cations of Recent Trends (August 1987): pp. 30-31.

  28. Congressional Budget Office, Trends in Educational Achievement(April 1986): pp. 31­39.

  29. U.S. Congressional Budget Office, Educational Achievement: Explanations and lmpli-cations of Recent Trends (August 1987): pp. 32-35.

  30. Ibid.

  31. Eric A. Hanushek, "The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in PublicSchools," Journal of Economic Literature, 24 (September 1986): pp. 1141-1177.

  32. For the most recent comprehensive review of this literature see Ibid.

  33. For a friendly, comprehensive critique of the Effective Schools Literature see Stewart C. Purkey and Marshall S. Smith, "Effective Schools: A Review," Elementary School Journal,83, 4 (1983): pp. 427-452.

  34. For example, see Linda Darling-Hammond, "The Over-Regulated Curriculum and the Press for Teacher Professionalism," NASSP Bulletin (April 1987).

  35. For a survey of educational choice experiments see Mary Anne Raywid, "The Mounting Case for Schools of Choice," unpublished manuscript, Hofstra University (May 1988).

  36. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, "Number of Schools, by Level and Control and by State: 1982-83," Digest of Education Statistics, 1985-86 (Washington, D.C., September 1986): table 8.

  37. See especially James S. Coleman and Thomas Hoffer, Public and Private High Schools: The Impact of Communities (New York: Basic Books, 1987).