1. Jessica Portner, "Wanted: Executive With Management Skills to Run Complex Enterprise (School System)," Education Week, February 10, 1993.

  2. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Digest of Education Statistics 1992, Washington, D.C., p. 89.

  3. Digest of Education Statistics 1992, pp. 70, 88.

  4. See for example John E. Chubb and Terry M. Moe, "Education," in Privatization for New York: Competing for a Better Future, E.S. Savas, ed., A Report of the New York State Senate Advisory Commission on Privatization, January 1992, p. 113.

  5. Digest of Education Statistics 1992, p. 157.

  6. Digest of Education Statistics 1991, Tables 30 and 36, pp. 34, 40.

  7. Digest of Education Statistics 1992, p. 45.

  8. States which had enacted charter school legislation as of July 1993 are California, Colorado, Georgia, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Mexico, and Wisconsin.

  9. James M. Gray, Ed. D., Norman, Oklahoma School superintendent, in letter to Mr. Dave Renfro, Commissioner of the State of Oklahoma Department of Labor, January 6, 1993.

  10. Digest of Education Statistics 1992, Table 154, p. 157.

  11. "Contracting Out Local Government Services in California," The California Tax Foundation, Sacramento, California, 1981, p. 50.

  12. Billy H. Conn, Ph.D., "Contracting for Services: An Imperative for Schools," in School Business Affairs, April 1989, p. 38.

  13. Digest of Education Statistics 1991, Table 84, p. 94.

  14. Myron Lieberman, Public Education: An Autopsy (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993), p. 120.

  15. Lawrence Martin, "How to Compare the Costs Between In-House and Contracted Services," Reason Foundation/Mackinac Center for Public Policy How-To Guide No. 4, 1993.

  16. "How to Compare Costs."

  17. John Rehfuss, Designing an Effective Bidding and Monitoring System to Minimize Problems in Competitive Contracting, Reason Foundation/Mackinac Center How-To Guide No. 3, 1993; and John O'Leary and William D. Eggers, Privatization and Public Employees: Guidelines for Fair Treatment, Reason Foundation How-To Guide No. 9, September 1993.

  18. Philip E. Geiger, "Privatizing Transportation: Does it Pay?" American School & University, February 1993, p. 22.

  19. Digest of Education Statistics 1992, p. 63.

  20. John Edney and Robert O'Neill, "Finding the Hidden Costs," published by the Association of California School Administrators, November/December 1990.

  21. Digest of Education Statistics 1991, Table 46, p. 60.

  22. Jean Love and Wendell Cox, "School Bus Contracting: Freeing Educators to Educate," The State Factor of the American Legislative Exchange Council, vol. 16, no. 1, January 1990, p. 6.

  23. "School Bus Contracting," pp. 3-4.

  24. "Summary of 1992 California School bus Collision Date," Information Bulletin, Department of California Highway Patrol, Commercial and Technical Services Section, Sacramento, California, 1993.

  25. Interview with Faye Melendez, Secretary to the Director of the Transportation Branch of the San Francisco Unified School District, September 13, 1993.

  26. Interview with Antonio Rodriguez, Deputy Director of the Transportation Branch of the Los Angeles Unified School District, September 13, 1993.

  27. Jim B. Hensley, "Privatizing Your School Bus Fleet," The School Administrator, November 1991.

  28. Marsha Blasco,"Privatizing Would Save Thousands for Pinckney," Livingston County Press, June 30,1993.

  29. Editorial, "The Battle of Pinckney," The Detroit News, June 30, 1993.

  30. Robert. A. McGuire and T. Norman Van Cott, "Public versus Private Economic Activity: A New Look at School Bus Transportation," Heartland Institute, Chicago, Illinois, Policy Study No. 10, September, 1986. For example, land owned by the district and used to store buses is often neglected in public cost analyses, even though there is a significant opportunity cost associated with such a practice; the study concluded that "such foregone interest income is properly a part of the cost of public provision of transportation, even though public accounting procedures do not include it as a cost."

  31. "Pupil Transportation Guide: Cost Analysis, Service Options, and Contract Administration," Field Services Branch of the California Department of Education, Sacramento, 1990.

    "Procedures to Determine Pupil Transportation Costs," Ernst & Whinney, available from the national School Transportation Association, 703/644-0700.

    John Edny and Robert O'Neill, "Finding the Hidden Costs," Thrust for Educational Leadership, California Association of School Administrators, November/December 1990.

    Karen Finkel, "The True Cost of Student Transportation," School and College, September 1991.

    Chip Taggart, "Accounting for Costs: Do You Know How Much Student Transportation Really Costs?" School Transportation, November 1990, pp. A10-A14.

  32. "Review of the Experience of School Districts in the States of Oregon and Washington that have Converted from District-Operated to Contractor-Operated Pupil Transportation Programs Since 1980," prepared on behalf of the Oregon School Transportation Association by KPMG Peat Marwick, Sacramento, May 1993.

  33. John O'Leary, "Comparing Public and Private Bus Transit Services: A Study of the Los Angeles Foothill Transit Zone," Reason Foundation Policy Study No. 163, July 1993, pp. 10, 16.

  34. Interview with Philip E. Geiger, superintendent of Piscataway Public Schools, June 18, 1993.

  35. Indiana Code, effective July 1, 1993. The American Legislative Exchange Council of Washington D.C. also has model legislation, called "The Pupil Transportation Cost Effectiveness Act," in its 1991-1992 Source Book of American State Legislation, Volume VI.

  36. Alexander Decker, et al., "Getting Your Money's Worth," California School Boards Journal, Fall 1992, pp. 52-57.

  37. Interview with Kevin Dando, manager of government affairs, American School Food Service Association, September 13, 1993.

  38. Authors' estimate, based on estimated $1.62 cost for each lunch, $0.64 for each breakfast, and assuming a 180-day school year. These figures may be conservative.

  39. "Child National Program Operation Study," USDA Food and Nutrition Service, 1991.

  40. Food and Nutrition service, U.S. Agriculture Department. Includes the values of commodities (entitlements, bonus, and cash in lieu). From The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1993, ed. Mark S. Hoffman (New York: Pharos Books, 1992) p. 120.

  41. Digest of Education Statistics 1992, p. 382.

  42. Anna David, "Public School Districts Contract Out to Private Food Companies for School Lunch Programs," Privatization Watch, Reason Foundation, March 1992.

  43. Mike Klingaman, "Private companies to run cafeterias in 18 high schools," The Baltimore Sun, July 19, 1993.

  44. Charles Mathesian, "Fast Food in High Schools: So Far, Not Much Beef," Governing, June 1993, p. 24. 45.

  45. "Fast Food in School," p. 24.

  46. C. Robert Brown, Superintendent of the Santa Cruz Valley, Arizona Unified School District, letter of August 31, 1992.

  47. James M. Gray, Ed.D., in a letter to Mr. Dave Renfro, Commissioner of the Oklahoma Department of Labor, January 6, 1993.

  48. Nick Chiles, "Fernandez Targets Custodians Union," Newsday, October 26, 1991 quoting Joseph Fernandez, then-New York City schools chancellor, from taping of WCBS-TV's "Sunday Edition" show, October 27, 1991.

  49. Telephone interview with Bob Terte, New York City Public Schools, Division of Public Affairs, August 3, 1993. This figure may be low. Amy Klein, assistant director of fiscal and legislative policy for the Council of the City of New York, reports that the Office of Management and Budget put the average salary of janitors at $60,000 per year. Teacher salary information from the Digest of Education Statistics 1992, p. 85.

  50. Interview with Greg Miller, National Vice President of Sales for Marriot Corp., June 1993.

  51. John Hilke, "Cost Savings from Privatization: A Compilation of Findings," Reason Foundation/ Mackinac Center How-to Guide No. 6, March 1993. Documents several studies comparing in-house and contracted cleaning services, finding cost savings between 13.4 and 50 percent.

  52. Anton Jungherr, associate superintendent Berkeley, California Unified School District, letter to California State Assembly Member Bev Hanson, March 13, 1992.

  53. Roderick Kelly, "Cash-hungry Schools Well-motivated to Privatize," Waukegan News-Sun, April 23, 1992.

  54. Nashville Business Journal, April 13, 1992.

  55. Jennifer Cushman, "District School Board Gets Education of Privatization," Chandler Independent, February 5, 1992.

  56. Roderick Kelly, "School Services Going Private," Beacon-News, May 26, 1992.

  57. Cindy Ingram, "Privatization Stirs Debate," Plano Star Courier, April 25, 1993.

  58. Paul Abramson, "Building On a Boom," American School & University, May 1993, p. 29.

  59. Projections of Education Statistics to 2002, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, p. 113.

  60. "Wolves at the Schoolhouse Door: An Investigation of the Condition of Public School Buildings," Education Writers Association, Washington, D.C., 1989, p. 2.

  61. "Wolves at the Schoolhouse Door," p. 2.

  62. Interview with Steve Walters, administrator for year-round programs, LAUSD, August 30, 1993.

  63. Janet R. Beales, "Satellite Schools: The Private Provision of School Infrastructure," Reason Foundation Policy Study No. 153, January 1993.

  64. "Satellite Schools," p. 6.

  65. Interview with Thomas Cerra, Deputy Superintendent, Dade County School District, Florida, December 29, 1992.

  66. Interview with Betsy Hogenough, team teacher, Pinellas County School District, Florida, June 3, 1993.

  67. R. Fitzgerald, When Government Goes Private, (Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, San Francisco, California, 1988).

  68. Digest of Education Statistics 1992, p. 91.

  69. Digest of Education Statistics 1992, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C., pp. 70, 88. 70.

  70. Digest of Education Statistics 1992, p. 73.

  71. David Hill, "Bullish on School," Teacher Magazine, April 1993, p. 31.

  72. Interview with Jim Butterfield, Technical Services Specialist, Johnson Controls World Services, Inc., Cape Canaveral, Florida, August 17, 1993.

  73. Interview with Linda Lentin, lead teacher, South Pointe Elementary School, June 14, 1993.

  74. Interview with Linda Lentin, lead teacher, South Pointe Elementary School, June 14, 1993.

  75. "Project May Run Some Public Mass. Schools," The Boston Globe, April 15, 1993.

  76. Interview with Renee Bundy, consultant, Wilkerson & Associate, Detroit, Michigan, August 17, 1993.

  77. Interview with Larry Patrick, member, Detroit Board of Education, August 26, 1993.

  78. Projections of Education Statistics, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, Washington D.C., p. x.

  79. This is calculated on the basis of an average teaching year of 37 weeks (185 days) as compared to a full-time work year of 48 weeks, which assumes 10 paid holidays and 2 weeks paid vacation.

  80. Digest of Education Statistics, 1991, p. 2.

  81. Digest of Education Statistics, 1991, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.

  82. Horace Mann Foundation Education Forum, November 1991.

  83. Interview with James Boyle, president, Ombudsman Educational Services, August 16, 1993.

  84. Interviews and correspondence with Bob Porter, Education Finance Specialist, Minnesota Department of Education, July 1993.

  85. Susan Mitchell, "Educational Choice in Wisconsin: Public Funds for Private Schools," Wisconsin Policy Research Institute, May 1993, p. 14.

  86. Interview with Stephen Etheridge, Education Finance Specialist for Post-Secondary Enrollment Options, Minnesota Department of Education, July 13, 1993.

  87. Interview with Stephen Etheridge, Education Finance Specialist for Post-Secondary Enrollment Options, Minnesota Department of Education, July 13, 1993.

  88. Angela Hulsey, School Choice Programs: What's Happening in the States, 1993 Edition, Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C., March 1993, p. 11.

  89. Untitled report, U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, Data Analysis Unit, 1991-92.

  90. Interview with Harold K. Sanders, Director of Public Education, Sylvan Learning Systems, Columbia, Maryland, February 5, 1993.

  91. Interview with Paul Papier, principal, Palmetto Elementary School, Dade County, Florida, June 8, 1993.

  92. Interview with Karol Brancato, principal, High Tech High School, Hudson County, New Jersey, June 10, 1993.

  93. Interview with Karol Brancato, June 10, 1993.

  94. Interview with Robin Gross, director, Science Encounters, Bethesda, Maryland, August 17, 1993.

  95. Ted Kolderie, "Private Practice in Public school Teaching, Book I, The Concept, Need and Design," published by Public School Incentives, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1986, p. 25.

  96. Interview with Alan Schafer, June 14, 1993.

  97. Interview with Lyle McBride, Valley Driving Systems, Inc., Corona, California, July 9, 1993.

  98. "Houston Eyes For-Profit Company for Run School Programs," Peter Schmidt, Education Week, May 5, 1993.

  99. "Education and Technology 1993," Market Data Retrieval, Inc., September, 1993, p. 37.

  100. Interview with Mark Stevens, director of marketing, Jostens Learning, September 20, 1993.