1. Alexis De Tocqueville, Democracy In America, 520 (George Lawrence 1969).

  2. Codified as MICH. COMP LAW §37.2301 et seq. (West 1993).

  3. Id.

  4. M.C.L.A 37.2301(a)

  5. Letter from State Senator Lana Pollack to Oakland Hills Country Club, July 28, 1992. 6

  6. M.C.L.A. 37.2301.

  7. M.C.L.A. 37.2301.

  8. M.C.L.A. 37.2301(a).

  9. See SFA Bill Analysis, Sb351/9192 at l.

  10. 636 F. Supp. 1476 (E.D. Mich. 1986).

  11. Id. at 1477.

  12. Id. at 1478.

  13. Id. at 1478.

  14. Id. at 1479.

  15. Id. at 1480.

  16. Letter of Senator Lana Pollack to Oakland Hills Country Club, July 28, 1992.

  17. James Mulvoy, past president of Forest Lake Country Club stated that his club has done this.

  18. A source who sought anonymity reported this.

  19. M.C.L.A. §37.2302A(2).

  20. Comment of James Mulvoy.

  21. I spoke with Mike Callaway, former President of the Detroit Golf Club, Mike Moldegen, past president of the Dearborn Country Club, and Emil Bair, President of Great Oaks Golf Club.

  22. 42 U.S.C. §2000 (West 1992). The statute states: "All persons shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, and accommodations of any place of public accommodation, as defined in this section, without discrimination or segregation on the ground of race, color, religion, or national origin." Inns, hotels and restaurants were included as places of public accommodation. Id. at 2000b.

  23. 42 U.S.C.A. §2000(a) (West 1992).

  24. 42 U.S.C.A. §2000a(e) (West 1992) "The provisions of this subchapter shall not apply to a private club or other establishment not in fact open to the public, except to the extent that the facilities of such establishment are made available to the customers or patrons of an establishment within the scope of subsection (b) of this section."

  25. 993 F.2d 1267 (7th Cir. 1993).

  26. Id. at 1268.

  27. Id. at 1269.

  28. Id. at 1269.

  29. Id. at 1271.

  30. Id. at 1272. Golf clubs are places of public accommodation. Wesley v. City of Savannah, 294 F. Supp. 698, 701-02 (S.D. Ga. 1969).

  31. Id. at 1276.

  32. 713 F. Supp. 785, 796-97, (F.D. Pa. 1989), aff'd 894 F.2d 83 (3rd Cir. 1990).

  33. Welsh at 1276.

  34. Id.

  35. Id. at 1276. (citing Sullivan v. Little Hunting Park, 396 U.S. 229, 236 90 S.Ct. 400, 404, 1969).

  36. Id. at 1276.

  37. Id. at 1276.

  38. Id. at 1277.

  39. Id. at 1277.

  40. Id. at 1277.

  41. 42 U.S.C.A. §1985 (West 1992).

  42. 948 F.2d 218 (6th Cir. 1991).

  43. Id. at 225 (citing Griffen v. Breckenridge, 403 U.S. 88, 96-98, 1971. See also: United Brotherhood of Teamsters, Local 610 v. Scott, 463 U.S. 825, 833, 1993).

  44. Id. at 226.

  45. Id. at 226.

  46. 113 S. Ct. 753 (1993).

  47. Id. at 762 (opinion of Scalia, A.)

  48. Id. at 759. (citations omitted).

  49. Id. at 759.

  50. Id. at 759.

  51. Id. at 759.

  52. 948 F.2d 218, 224 (6th Cir. 1991).

  53. 42 U.S.C. § 1981 states, "All persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall have the same right in every state and territory to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the full and equal benefits of all laws and proceedings for the security of persons and property as is enjoyed by white citizens, and shall be subject to like punishment, pains, penalties, taxes, licenses, and exactions of every kind, and to no other."

  54. St. Louis v. Alverno College 744 F. 2d 1314, 1317. See also Runyon v. McCary, 427 U.S. 160, 167 (1976).

  55. Id.

  56. Id. at 238-39.

  57. Id. at 240-41.

  58. Id,. at 241.

  59. Id. at 241.

  60. Id. at 243.

  61. Id. at 243.

  62. M.C.L.A. 2301 et seq. (West 1993)

  63. U.S. Const. Amend 1. The Amendment prohibits government from abridging the "right of the people peaceably to assemble."

  64. 468 U.S. 609 (1983).

  65. Id. at 614.

  66. Id. at 617.

  67. Id. at 617-618.

  68. Id. at 620.

  69. Id. at 621.

  70. Id. at 622.

  71. Id. at 623.

  72. Id. at 626.

  73. Id. at 626.

  74. 573 F.Supp. 399 (E.D.Va. 1983).

  75. Id. at 402.

  76. Id. at 403

  77. Id. at 403.

  78. Id. at 403.

  79. 483 U.S. 327, (1987).

  80. Id. at 2865.

  81. Id. at 2867-68.

  82. Id. at 2868.

  83. Id. at 2869.

  84. Id. at 2870.