1. Digest of Education Statistics 1993, U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 1993, p. 47.

  2. Digest of Education Statistics 1993, U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 1993, p. 46.

  3. Digest of Education Statistics 1992, U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 1992, p. 157. Classroom expenditures are probably less than 58 percent since the cost of capital investment and state-education agencies are not included in the original figure for total expenditures.

  4. Digest of Education Statistics 1992, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C., p. 89.

  5. John E. Chubb and Terry M. Moe, Privatization for New York: Competing for a Better Future, A Report of the New York State Senate Advisory Commission on Privatization, January 1992, p. 113.

  6. Digest of Education Statistics 1992, pp. 70, 88.

  7. Interview with Mark Tennant, Trustee, Pinckney Board of Education, June 8, 1994.

  8. John Hilke, Cost Savings from Privatization: A Compilation of Findings, Mackinac Center for Public Policy / Reason Foundation How-to Guide No. 6, 1993.

  9. "Review of the Experience of School Districts in the States of Oregon and Washington That Have Converted from District-Operated to Contractor-Operated Pupil Transportation Programs Since 1980," prepared on behalf of the Oregon School Transportation Association by KPMG Peat Marwick, Sacramento, Calif., May 1993.

  10. Interview with Philip Geiger, Superintendent, Piscataway Public Schools, February 11, 1994.

  11. Panel presentation by Philip Geiger at the Reason Foundation's "Streamlining Government for the 21 st Century" conference, Chicago, Ill., May 10, 1994.

  12. Interview with Noel Beale, regional vice president, Daka Restaurants, June 23, 1994.

  13. Ibid.

  14. Interview with Alan Sheinwald, Mayflower Contract Services, March 23, 1994, and "Bus Drivers Seek Pay Cut," Rocky Mountain News, January 25, 1994.

  15. Paul Abramson, "The Vending Machine," American School & University, September 1993, p. 44.

  16. Interview with Joe Agron, editor, American School & University magazine, Philadelphia, Penn., June 6, 1994.

  17. Mark Crist, "Officials: Controls Key," The North Platte Telegraph, North Platte, Nebraska, April 8, 1994.

  18. Food Program Facts, Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1993.

  19. Laurie McGinley, "Planned New School-Lunch Guidelines Prompt Food Sellers to Think Nutrition," The Wall Street Journal, June 6, 1994, p. B 1.

  20. Digest of Education Statistics, 1993, p. 381.

  21. Digest of Education Statistics, 1993, p. 383.

  22. "Resetting the School Lunch Table," The School Administrator, May 1994, p. 48.

  23. Paul Abramson, "The Vending Machine," American School & University, September 1993, p. 44.

  24. Janet R. Beales and John O'Leary, Making Schools Work: Contracting Options for Better Management, Reason Foundation, November 1993, p. 12.

  25. Interview with Carol Kelly, Office of Analysis and Evaluation, Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Alexandria, VA, May 3, 1994. A report examining the experience of 10 districts with food-service contracting is available in Fall, 1994.

  26. "The Major Players in School Food Service," The School Administrator, May 1994, p. 36.

  27. Interview with Robert Brady, Marriott School Services, May 23, 1994.

  28. Correspondence with Robert Brady, Marriott Management Services, April 21, 1994. These results were compiled for districts with which Marriott has had contracts for more than a year; Marriott serves a total of just more than 30 districts in California.

  29. Interview with Paul Kelly, Business Manager, Pocono Mountain School Board, Sweetwater, PA, April 7, 1994.

  30. Interview with Robert Winter, superintendent, Wayne Township Public Schools, Wayne, New Jersey, March 22, 1994.

  31. Digest of Education Statistics, 1993, p. 64 and School Bus Fleet, January 1994, p. 29.

  32. Pupil Transportation Guide: Cost Analysis, Service Options, and Contract Administration, California Department of Education, 1990, p. ix.

  33. Digest of Education Statistics, 1993, p. 64.

  34. School Bus Fleet, January 1994, p. 29.

  35. Jean Love and Wendell Cox, "School Bus Contracting: Freeing Educators to Educate," The State Factor of the American Legislative Exchange Council, vol. 16, no. 1, January 1990, pp. 3-4.

  36. Robin Leeds, "Connecticut School Bus Accident Summary," Connecticut Operators of School Transportation Association, 1994.

  37. "Summary of 1993 California School Bus Collision Data," Information Bulletin, Department of California Highway Patrol, Commercial and Technical Services Section, Sacramento, Calif., 1994.

  38. Janet R. Beales and John O'Leary, Making Schools Work: Contracting Options for Better Management, Policy Study No. 169, Reason Foundation, 1994, p. 7.

  39. "Review of the Experience of School Districts in the States of Oregon and Washington that have Converted from District-Operated to Contractor-Operated Pupil Transportation Pro-grams Since 1980," prepared on behalf of the Oregon School Transportation Association by KPMG Peat Marwick, Sacramento, Calif., 1993.

  40. Pupil Transportation Guide: Cost Analysis, Service Options, and Contract Administration, California Department of Education, 1990, p. ix.

  41. Interview with Gary Smith, director of transportation, Hart Union High School District, California, April 27, 1994.

  42. Interview with Dr. Leslie Carnine, superintendent, Wichita Falls Independent School District, Wichita Falls, Tex., May 25, 1994.

  43. Interview with Glenn Capps, senior director of School Plant and Facilities, Norfolk City School District, Virginia, April 25, 1994.

  44. Interview with Paul Abramson, American School & University, June 9, 1994.

  45. Joe Agron, "A Clean Sweep," American School & University, April 1994, p. 31.

  46. Interview with Paul Abramson, American School & University, June 9, 1994.

  47. Joe Agron, "A Clean Sweep," American School & University, April 1994, p. 33.

  48. Custodial Methods and Procedures Manual, Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, Va., 1986, p. 67.

  49. Jacquelyn Heard, "School Repairs May Need Big Fix," Chicago Tribune, April 1, 1994.

  50. Rosalind Rossi, "Schools' Big Cash Drain," Chicago Sun-Times, April 1, 1994.

  51. Kathy E. Pruett, Custodial, Maintenance and Ground Survey, Research Services, Memphis City Schools, March 1994.

  52. Interview with Timothy Raymer, Chief Financial Officer, Union Public Schools, Tulsa, Okla., April 26, 1994.

  53. Interview with Robert Winter, op. cit.

  54. Lawrence Martin, How to Compare Costs Between In-House and Contracted Services, How-to Guide No. 4, Reason Foundation, March, 1993, p. 2.

  55. Ibid.

  56. Pupil Transportation Guide: Cost Analysis, Service Options, and Contract Administration, California Department of Education, 1990, p. xi.

  57. Interview with Robert Winter, superintendent, Wayne Township Public Schools, Wayne, N.J., March 22, 1994.

  58. Interview with Dr. Richard Schilling, assistant superintendent for business administration, New Rochelle City School District, New Rochelle, N.Y., April 26, 1994.

  59. Interview with John Donlevy, Donlevy Administrative Services, Chino Hills, Calif, May 31, 1994.

  60. Correspondence with John Donlevy, Donlevy Administrative Services, June 6, 1994.

  61. Ibid.

  62. Interview with Dr. Richard Holzman, superintendent, Lindenhurst Public Schools, Lindenhurst, N.Y., March 21, 1994.

  63. John Rehfuss, Designing an Effective Bidding and Monitoring System, How-to Guide No. 2, Reason Foundation, February 1993, p. 8.

  64. Interview with Ken Hendriksen, superintendent, Mt. Zion Community Unit School District No. 3, Mt. Zion, Ill., May 25, 1994.

  65. Interview with Eric Premack, BW Associates, Berkeley, Calif., January 1994.

  66. Interview with Dr. Richard Schilling, assistant superintendent for Business Administration, New Rochelle City School District, New Rochelle, N.Y., April 26, 1994.

  67. Interview with Dr. Richard Holzman, superintendent, Lindenhurst Public Schools, Lindenhurst, N.Y., March 21, 1994.

  68. Ibid.

  69. John Rehfuss, Designing an Effective Bidding and Monitoring System to Minimize Problems in Competitive Contracting, How-to Guide No. 3, Mackinac Center for Public Policy I Reason Foundation, 1993.

  70. States that have passed charter-school legislation include: Minnesota, California, Colorado, Georgia, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Mexico, Wisconsin, Hawaii, Kansas, and Arizona.

  71. Interview with Yvonne Chan, principal, Vaughn Next Century Learning Center, December 20, 1993.