1 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development & Statistics Canada, Literacy, Economy and Society (Paris: 1995), 152-54.

2 See family income breakdowns in the above publication.

3 Hart & Teeter, "A Measured Response: Americans Speak On Education Reform," Results from survey/focus group research conducted April - May 2001 for the Educational Testing Service. Available on-line at: ftp://etsis1.ets.org/pub/corp/2001_executive_report.pdf

4 National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 2000 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 2000), Table 170. Available on-line at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/digest/dt170.html

5 Note that the cost of educating physically disabled children is generally higher than the cost of educating children who are not disabled but who are nonetheless classified as "learning disabled." The percentage of physically disabled children has fallen over the past 30 years, however, while the number of non-disabled children labeled "learning disabled" has risen dramatically.

For a discussion of these issues, see: Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), Chapter 6.

6 Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), 178-189.

7 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development & Statistics Canada, Literacy, Economy and Society (Paris: 1995), 152-54.

8 Eric A. Hanushek, Steven G. Rivkin and Lori L. Taylor, "Aggregation and the Estimated Effects of School Resources," The Review of Economics and Statistics, v. 78, no. 4 (November 1996), p. 626.

Eric A. Hanushek, "The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools," Journal of Economic Literature, v. 24 (September 1986), pp. 1141-1177.

Richard Vedder, Joshua Hall, and Michael Melander, "Determinants of Ohio Student Performance," working paper (Athens, Ohio: Department of Economics, Ohio University, January 15, 1998).

9 Stephen Childs and Charol Shakeshaft, "A Meta-Analysis of Research on the Relationship Between Educational Expenditures and Student Achievement," Journal of Education Finance, vol. 12, no. 3 (1986): 260.

10 Erich Gundlach, Ludger Wößmann, and Jens Gmelin. "The Decline of Schooling Productivity in OECD Countries." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Royal Economic Society, St. Andrews, July 10-13, 2000. See also: Ludger Wößmann, "New Evidence on the Missing Resource-Performance Link in Education." Kiel Working Paper No. 1051, Kiel Institute of World Economics. June 2001.

11 Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), 209-211.

12 University of Oregon College of Education, "Class Size Reduction Initiatives, By State," (ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management). Available on-line at: http://eric.uoregon.edu/publications/policy_reports/class_size/initiatives.html

13 U.S. Department of Education, "Local Success Stories: Reducing Class Size," November 1999. Available on-line at: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/ClassSize/localsuccess.html

14 American Federation of Teachers, "Small Class Size: Education Reform That Works," Available on-line at: http://www.aft.org/issues/class_size.html

15 National Education Association, "NEA Issues: Class Size," Available on-line at: http://www.nea.org/classsize/

16 Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Dominic J. Brewer, Adam Gamoran and J. Douglas Willms, "Class Size and Student Achievement," Psychological Science in the Public Interest, v. 2., no. 1 (May 2001).

17 Hart & Teeter, "A Measured Response: Americans Speak On Education Reform," Results from survey/focus group research conducted April - May 2001 for the Educational Testing Service. Available on-line at: ftp://etsis1.ets.org/pub/corp/2001_executive_report.pdf

18 Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), 166-167.

19 Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), 154-176.

20 Richard M. Wolf, "National Standards: Do We Need Them?" Educational Researcher, v. 27, no. 4 (1998), p. 22-25.

21 After being notified of suspicious answers to some essay questions, the Michigan Treasury Dept. found 20 schools guilty of cheating on the MEAP achievement test. These schools gave answers to special education students and drilled students in advance using exact questions from unreleased "active" copies of the test. See: Amy Franklin, "State releases MEAP cheating report," The Detroit News, August 31, 2001. Available on-line at: http://detnews.com/2001/schools/0108/31/-283350.htm

22 Elaine Woo, "40 Grade Schools Cheated on Skill Tests, State Finds," Los Angeles Times, September 1, 1988, p. 1.

23 Drew Lindsay, "Whodunit: Someone cheated on standardized tests at a Connecticut school. And it wasn't the students," Education Week, October 2, 1996, pp. 27, 28.

Helen O'Neill and Denise Lavoie, "A winning school loses its magic," Associated Press, Seattle Times, April 6, 1997, pp. A6.

24 John J. Cannell, How Public Educators Cheat on Standardized Achievement Tests (Albuquerque, N.M.: Friends for Education, 1989), p. 15.

25 Janie L. Hall and Paul F. Kleine, "Educators' Perceptions of NRT Misuse," Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, vol.11, no. 2 (1992): 20.

26 John Lawson and Harold Silver, A Social History of Education in England (London: Butler & Tanner Ltd., 1973), 290.

27 "Teach Pupils French from age of seven," The Times, May 29, 1997, General News section.

28 Barbara Levine (ed.), "Chronology of John Dewey's Life and Work," September, 2001. Available on-line at: http://www.siu.edu/~deweyctr/chrono.html and

James Fieser and Bradley Dowden (eds.), "John Dewey, Life and Works," The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2001. Available on-line at: http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/d/dewey.htm

29 UCLS Overview. Available on-line at: http://www.ucls.uchicago.edu/about/overview.html

30 Green v. County School Board of New Kent County, 391 U.S. 430 (1968) (USSC+). Full text available on-line at www.USSCPlus.com

31 Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) (USSC+)

32 Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), 133-134.

33 Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), 154-156.

34 The 300-school estimate is from: James Traub, "Better By Design? A Consumer's Guide to Schoolwide Reform," December 1999, The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation. Available on-line at: http://www.edexcellence.net/library/bbd/better_by_design.html

The 150-school estimate is from: Rebecca Herman, Project Director, "An Educator's Guide to Schoolwide Reform," American Association of School Administrators, 1999. Available on-line at: http://www.aasa.org./reform/index.htm

35 This estimate of the number of public schools is taken from: NCES, "CCD Quick Facts: Facts, Figures and Frequently Asked Questions About Schools and School Districts," compiled from the National Center for Education Statistics' Common Core of Data. Available on-line at: http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/quickfacts.html

36 The 1,500-school estimate is from: James Traub, "Better By Design? A Consumer's Guide to Schoolwide Reform," December 1999, The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation. Available on-line at: http://www.edexcellence.net/library/bbd/better_by_design.html

The 1,130-school estimate is from: Rebecca Herman, Project Director, "An Educator's Guide to Schoolwide Reform," American Association of School Administrators, 1999. Available on-line at: http://www.aasa.org./reform/index.htm

37 Herbert J. Walberg, "The Diogenes Factor," Education Week, April 8, 1998.

38 Debra Viadero, "Miami Study Critiques `Success for All,'" Education Week, January 27, 1999. Available on-line at: http://www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=20succes.h18&keywords=success%20for%20all%20

39 Adam Tucker, "A Response to: An Educators' Guide to Schoolwide Reform," Coalition of Essential Schools, Inc. (undated). Available on-line at: http://www.aasa.org/reform/Appendix/letter13.htm

40 Lynn Olson, "Following the Plan," Education Week, April 14, 1999. Available on-line at: http://www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=31implem.h18&keywords= coalition%20of%20essential%20schools

41 Thomas L. Good, Jennifer S. Braden and Darrel W. Drury, "Charting a New Course: Fact and Fiction about Charter Schools," October, 2000, NSBA.

42 The Center for Educational Reform (CER), "What the Research Reveals About Charter Schools," Nov. 2, 2000, CER. Available on-line at: http://www.edreform.com/pubs/charters.htm

43 Patrick J. Wolf, Paul E. Peterson, Martin R. West. "Results of a School Voucher Experiment: The Case of Washington, D.C. After Two Years." Paper prepared for the Annual Meetings of the American Political Science Association, August 30-September 2, 2001, San Francisco, California.

Daniel P. Mayer, Paul E. Peterson, David E. Myers, Christina Clark Tuttle, William G. Howell. "School Choice in New York City After Three Years: An Evaluation of the School Choice Scholarships Program, Final Report." February 19, 2002. Research report by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., and the Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University.

Jay P. Greene. "The Effect of School Choice: An Evaluation of the Charlotte Children's Scholarship Fund Program." Education Next, August 30, 2000. Available on the Internet at: http://www.educationnext.org/unabridged/20012/greene.pdf

Kim K. Metcalf, "Cleveland Scholarship Program Evaluation: 1998 - 2000," Technical Report (2001), Indiana Center for Evaluation. Available on-line at: http://www.ode.state.oh.us/comm/news/Sep_2001_news/clev4techrep.pdf

Cecilia Elena Rouse, "Private School Vouchers and Student Achievement: An Evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program," Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 113, no. 2 (May 1998): 553-602.

William G. Howell, Patrick J. Wolf, Paul E. Peterson, and David E. Campbell, "Test-Score Effects of School Vouchers in Dayton, Ohio, New York City and Washington, D. C.: Evidence from Randomized Field Trials," Paper prepared for the annual meetings of the American Political Science, Association, Washington, D. C., September 2000.

Jay Greene, Paul Peterson and Jingtao Du, "The Effectiveness of School Choice in Milwaukee: A Secondary Analysis of Data from the Program's Evaluation," Paper prepared for presentation before the Panel on the Political Analysis of Urban School Systems at the August-September 1996 meetings of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, California, Friday, August 30. Available on-line at: http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/pepg/op/evaluate.htm

44 John Witte, The Market Approach to Education: An Analysis of America's First Voucher Program (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000).

45 Office of Educational Research and Improvement, "A National Study of Charter Schools, 1998, " U.S. Department of Education. Executive Summary available on-line at: http://www.ed.gov/pubs/charter98/execsum.html

Jay P. Greene, "The Effect of Education Vouchers: An Evaluation of the Charlotte Children's Scholarship Fund Program," The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, August 30, 2000. Available on-line at: http://www.csfcharlotte.org/research.htm

U.S. Department of Education. The State of Charter Schools 2000 - Fourth-Year Report, January 2000.  The relevant section can be found on-line at: http://www.ed.gov/pubs/charter4thyear/c.html#1

46 Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), 275-277.

47 Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), Chapter 7.

48 Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999).

49Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), Chapter 9.

50 Direct parental financial responsibility is important because it gives parents a powerful incentive to become informed about their educational options, and to choose wisely. However, it is not necessary for every parent to be a savvy shopper in order for all parents to benefit from market forces. Consider the case of grocery stores. "Not every shopper carefully compares grocery prices, and very few do so for every item they buy every time they go to the supermarket. Despite this fact, prices are held in check, and tend to be comparable from one grocery store to the other. The reason is that enough people are price-conscious enough of the time for it to be in the store managers' interests to set reasonable prices. Over time, a supermarket that charges considerably higher prices than its competitors loses enough business due to the departure of savvy customers that it is forced to lower prices or to shut its doors. So, thanks to those few price-conscious individuals, all the store's customers benefit from the lower prices stores are forced to adopt. As a result, it is possible for someone to go into an unfamiliar grocery store, buy all the items on their list, and be fairly confident that he or she will pay a reasonable price.

"This same effect holds in other free market enterprises, including education. When parents have educational choice and schools must compete to attract their business, enough parents are cautious in making their selection for it to be in the interest of school managers to offer a quality service at a fair price. Those parents who are not careful are, essentially, free riders, benefiting from the informed decisions of their neighbors without having to expend any great effort themselves." - From Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), 318-319.

51 Dennis Doyle and James Hirni, "Where Teachers Send Their Own Children to School," Heritage Foundation Business/Education Insider, no. 42 (October-November 1995). http://www.heritage.org/library/categories/education/bei42.html

52 Nathan Rosenberg and Larry Birdzell, How the West Grew Rich : The Economic Transformation of the Industrial World (New York: Basic Books, 1987).

53 For a detailed discussion see: Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), pp. 304-318.

54 Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1999), Chapters 2-4, summarized on pp. 319-320.

55 James S. Kunen, "The End of Integration," Time, April 29, 1996, 39-41.