[91]     Jeff Archer, "Unions Pull Out Stops for Elections," Education Week, 1 November 2000, pp. 31, 34.

[92]     Joseph P. Overton, "Lessons learned from school choice wars," The Detroit News, 30 October 2000, p. 9A.  Available on the Internet at http://detnews.com/EDITPAGE/0010/30/edit4/edit4.htm

[93]     MASB (Michigan Association of School Boards) Journal Special Report, "Against vouchers?  Good offense makes best defense for public school supporters", Winter 1999, p. 7.

[94]     Denis P. Doyle, Where Connoisseurs Send Their Children to School: An Analysis of 1990 Census Data to Determine Where School Teachers Send Their Children to School, The Center for Education Reform, May 1995, p. 21. 

[95]     Overton, "Lessons learned.", p. 9A.

[96]     Jeff Archer, "NEA, AFT Leave Mark on Congress, Ballot Measures", Education Week, 15 November 2000, pp. 26, 29. 

[97]     James S. Coleman and Thomas Hoffer, Public and Private High Schools: The Impact of Communities (New York: Basic Books, 1987).

[98]     Jay P. Greene and Nicole Mellow, "Integration Where it Counts: A Study of Racial Integration in Public and Private School Lunchrooms," University of Texas at Austin, 20 August 1998. 

[99]     David Barton, "The Foundations of American Government," A Transcript of the Video and Audio by the Same Title (Aledo, TX: WallBuilder Press, 1993), pp. 8-10.

[100]   Pierce v. Society of Sisters; 268 U.S. 510, 535 (1925). 

[101]   Wisconsin v. Yoder; 406 U.S. 205 (1972).

[102]   Wolman v. Walter; 433 U.S. 229, 262 (1977). 

[103]   Mueller v. Allen; 463 U.S. 388 (1983).

[104]   Luthens v. Bair; 788 F.Supp. 1032 (S.D. la. 1992). 

[105]   Jackson v. Benson; 218 Wis. 2d 835, *; 578N.W.2d 602, **; 1998 Wisc. LEXIS 70; and Matthew Robinson, "School Choice Goes To Court," Investor's Business Daily, June 11, 1998, p. A1.

[106]   Kotterman v. Killian, 1999 WL 27517 (Ariz. 1999). 

[107]   Toney et al. v. Bower et al., 99 MR 413, IL 1,3, 7th jc (2000).

[108]   Charles J. O'Malley, Ph.D., "Who Says Private Schools Aren't Accountable?," Prepared for Temple University and Manhattan Institute, Western Regional Science Association, October 1995, p. 8. 

[109]   Danielle L. Schultz, "Lessons from America's Best Run Schools," The Washington Monthly, November 1983, pp. 52-53.

[110]   John F. Witte, The Market Approach to Education: An Analysis of America's First Voucher Program (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000), p. 69. 

[111]   Lawrence Mead, "Jobs for the Welfare Poor," Policy Review, winter 1988, p. 65.

[112]   Ted Forstmann, "School Choice, by Popular Demand," The Wall Street Journal, 21 April 1999, p. A22. 

[113]   U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.  Digest of Education Statistics, 1999, NCES 2000-031, May 2000, Table 39.

[114]   Michael Moe, Director of Global Growth Research and education analyst at Merill Lynch, presentation at The Pierre Hotel, New York City, "Freedom and Equal Opportunity in Education: A Moral Imperative and a Call to Entrepreneurs,"12 January 2000.

[115]   Digest of Education Statistics., Table 160 & 135. 

[116]   Paul Ciotti, "Money and School Performance: Lessons from the Kansas City Desegregation Experiment," Policy Analysis No. 298, Cato Institute, 16 March 1998.

[117]   Peter Applebome, "Record School Enrollments, Now and Ahead," The New York Times, 22 August 1997, p. A8. 

[118]   Janet R. Beales, Doing More With Less: Competitive Contracting for School Support Services, Mackinac Center for Public Policy and the Reason Foundation, November 1994, p. 2. 

[119]   John E. Chubb, Educational Choice, Answers to the Most Frequently Asked Questions About Mediocrity in American Education and What Can Be Done About It, The Yankee Institute for Public Policy Studies, July 1989, p. 22.

[120]     John E. Chubb and Terry M. Moe, "American Public Schools: Choice is a Panacea," The Brookings Review, summer 1990. 

[121]   Laura M. Litvan, "More Firms Paying Kids' Tuition," Investor's Business Daily, August 28, 1997, p. A1.

[122]   Anderson et. al., The Universal Tuition Tax Credit. 

[123]   Howard L. Fuller, "The Real Evidence: An Honest Research Update on School Choice Experiments," Wisconsin Interest, fall/winter 1997, p 20.

[124]     The following is representative of recent research on school choice available from the Program on Education Policy and Governance at Harvard University: David Myers, Paul E. Peterson, David Mayer, Julia Chou and William G. Howell, "School Choice in New York City After Two Years: An Evaluation of the School Choice Scholarships Program," Mathematica Policy Research and the Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, August 2000; William G. Howell, Patrick J. Wolf, Paul E. Peterson and David E. Campbell, "Test-Score Effects of School Vouchers in Dayton, Ohio, New York City, and Washington D.C.: Evidence from Randomized Field Trials", Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, August 2000; Patrick J. Wolf, Paul E. Peterson and William G. Howell, "School Choice in Washington D.C.: An Evaluation After One Year", Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, February 2000; William G. Howell and Paul E. Peterson, "School Choice in Dayton, Ohio: An Evaluation After One Year", Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, February 2000; Paul E. Peterson, David Myers and William G. Howell, "An Evaluation of the Horizon Scholarship Program in the Edgewood Independent School District, San Antonio, Texas: The First Year", Mathematica Policy Research and the Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, September 1999; Paul E. Peterson, William G. Howell and Jay P. Greene, "An Evaluation of the Cleveland Voucher Program After Two Years", Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, June 1999;  Paul E. Peterson, David Myers and William G. Howell, "An Evaluation of the New York City: School Choice Scholarships Program: The First Year", Mathematica Policy Research and the Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, October 1998; Paul E. Peterson, Jay P. Greene, William G. Howell and William McCready, "Initial Findings from an Evaluation of School Choice Programs in Washington, D.C. and Dayton, Ohio", Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, October 1998; Paul E. Peterson, Jay P. Greene, William G. Howell and William McCready, "Initial Findings from an Evaluation of School Choice Programs in Washington, D.C.", Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, September 1998;  Paul E. Peterson, Jay P. Greene, and William G. Howell, "New Findings from the Cleveland Scholarship Program: A Reanalysis of Data from the Indiana University School of Education Evaluation", Program on Education Policy and Governance and the Center for American Political Studies, Harvard University, May 1998; Paul Peterson, David Myers, Josh Haimson, and William G. Howell, "Initial Findings from the Evaluation of the New York School Choice Scholarships Foundation Program", Mathematica Policy Research and the Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, November 1997; and Jay P. Greene, William G. Howell and Paul E. Peterson, "Lessons from the Cleveland Scholarship Program", Program on Education Policy and Governance and the Center for American Political Studies, Harvard University, October 1997.  Available on the Internet at http://hdc-www.harvard.edu/pepg/ .  Additional school choice information can be accessed at www.mackinac.org and www.schoolchoiceworks.org, or through the organizations listed in Appendix B on pages 57-58.

[125]       Charter Schools Today: Changing the Face of American Education (Washington, D.C.: The Center for Education Reform, 2000) pp. 116, 114.

[126]       Mark Mayes, "Lansing Schools to Unleash Marketing Push," Lansing State Journal, 5 May 1997.

[127]       Ladner and Brouillette, The Impact of Limited School Choice..

[128]       Michigan Education Report, "Painting the private school picture", Fall 2000.  Available on the Internet at www.educationreport.org/article.asp?ID=2890.

[129]       Sandra Vergari and Michael Mintrom, "Public Opinion on K-12 Education in Michigan," Michigan State of the State Survey, Briefing Paper 98-36, May 1998. 

[130]       Cited in "Empowering Parents To Drive Education Reform," Council of Baptist Pastors, p. 11.

[131]       "Detroit Public Schools poll," Detroit Free Press, 6 February 1999. 

[132]       Ibid., p. 9.

[133]       Quoted in Richman, Separating School & State., p. 11.

[134]       Debra Viadero, "U.S. Seniors Near Bottom in World Test," Education Week, 4 March 1998, p. 1 and U.S. News & World Report, 9 March 1998, p. 14.

 [135]         A Nation Still at Risk: An Education Manifesto (Washington, DC: 30 April 1998); available on the Internet at http://www.edexcellence.net/library/manifes.html.

[136]       David W. Breneman, "Remediation in Higher Education: Its Extent and Cost," in Brookings Papers on Education Policy 1998 (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1998).

[137]          Reality Check (New York: Public Agenda, January 1998).

[138]     Greene, The Cost of Remedial Education.

[139]       Anderson, et al, The Universal Tuition Tax Credit., p. 17.

[140]       Deroy Murdock, "Teachers warm to school choice," The Washington Times, National Weekly Edition, 25-31 May 1998, p. 34.

[141]       William Styring, "Teachers and School Choice," American Outlook, spring 1998, p. 51.

[142]       Denis P. Doyle, Where Connoisseurs Send Their Children to School: An Analysis of 1990 Census Data to Determine Where School Teachers Send Their Children to School, The Center for Education Reform, May 1995, p. 21.

[143]       Brouillette and Williams, The Impact of School Choice.

[144]       "Detroit Public Schools poll," Detroit Free Press, 6 February 1999.

[145]       Janet R. Beales and Thomas F. Bertonneau, Do Private Schools Serve Difficult-to-Educate Students?, Mackinac Center for Public Policy and the Reason Foundation, October 1997, p. 1.  Available on the Internet at http://www.mackinac.org/article.asp?ID=361.

[146]       Brouillette, Unused Capacity., available on the Internet at http://www.mackinac.org.

[147]       Anderson, et al, The Universal Tuition Tax Credit., available on the Internet at http://www.mackinac.org.

[148]       Brouillette, Unused Capacity., available on the Internet at http://www.mackinac.org.

[149]       Richman, Separating School & State., p. 89.

[150]       Anderson, et al, The Universal Tuition Tax Credit., available on the Internet at http://www.mackinac.org.

[151]       Susan Mitchell, How School Choice Almost Died in Wisconsin (Thiensville, WI: Wisconsin Policy Research Institute, Inc., September 1999); available on the Internet at http://www.wpri.org.

[152]       Ibid., pp. 17-18.

[153]       Ibid., p. 17.

[154]       Stephen Reder, "The State of Literacy in America:  Synthetic Estimates of Adult Literacy Proficiency at the Local State, and National levels,"  National Institute for Literacy.  Available on the Internet at http://www.nifl.gov/reders/reder.htm.

[155]       Christopher J. Klicka, The Right Choice: Home Schooling (Gresham, OR: Noble Publishing Associates, 1995), pp. 153-169.

[156]       Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary?, p. 21.