[1]       The Wall Street Journal, "Reding, Wrighting & Erithmatic," 2 October 1989.

[2]       Andrew J. Coulson, Market Education: The Unknown History (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1999), p. 75.

[3]       James Mulhern, A History of Education: A Social Interpretation, 2nd Ed. (New York: The Ronald Press Co., 1959), p 505; Samuel L. Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary? (Old Greenwich, CT: The Devin-Adair Company, 1981), p 11; and Sheldon Richman, Separating School & State:  How to Liberate America's Families (Fairfax, VA:  The Future of Freedom Foundation, 1994), pp. 40-41.

[4]       Edwin Grant Dexter, A History of Education in the United States (London: Macmillan & Co., LTD., 1904), pp. 24-37; Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary?, pp. 17-18; and Ellwood P. Cubberley, Public Education in the United States: A Study and Interpretation of American Educational History (New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1919), pp. 23-24, 28-32.

[5]       Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary?, pp. 19-20.

[6]       Mulhern, A History of Education: A Social Interpretation, pp. 592-594; and Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary?, pp. 20, 23-24, 43.

[7]       Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary?, pp. 24-26, 56.

[8]       Edgar W. Knight and Clifton L. Hall, Readings in American Educational History (New York: Appleton-Crofts, Inc., 1951), pp. 316, 321; and Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary?, pp. 57.

[9]       Dexter, A History of Education in the United States, pp. 90-96; Mulhern, A History of Education: A Social Interpretation, pp. 604-610; and John D. Pulliam, History of Education in America. 5th ed. (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1991), pp. 77-78. 

[10]     Henry J. Perkinson, The Imperfect Panacea: American Faith in Education, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995), p. 14.

[11]     Barry W. Poulson, "Education and the Family During the Industrial Revolution," in Joseph R. Peden and Fred R. Glahe, eds., The American Family and the State (San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute, 1986), p. 138.

[12]    Richman, Separating School & State., p. 38.

[13]     Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary?, p. 36.

[14]     Perkinson, The Imperfect Panacea., pp. 14-16, 27-32; and Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary?, pp. 43-44.

[15]     Cubberley, Public Education in the United States., pp. 175-176; and Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary?, pp. 48, 56.

[16]     Perkinson, The Imperfect Panacea., pp. 27-32.

[17]     Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary?, p 66.

[18]     In fact, in 1820 only about 22 percent of the school-aged children outside of Boston attended public schools.  Private academies flourished.  Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary?, p. 56.

[19]     Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary?, p. 164

[20]     Ibid., pp. 164-165.

[21]     Gerald L. Gutek, An Historical Introduction to American Education, 2nd ed. (Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc., 1991), pp. 63-67; Pulliam, History of Education in America, pp. 72-73; Cubberley, Public Education in the United States., p. 175; and Mulhern, A History of Education: A Social Interpretation, pp. 507-508, 597-598.

[22]     Gutek, An Historical Introduction to American Education, p. 60.

[23]     Common School Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1 (January 1841) p. 15.

[24]     Victor Cousin, Report on the Condition of Public Instruction in Germany, and particularly Prussia.  Originally submitted to the French  government in 1831 and published in New York City in the winter of 1834-35.  As cited in Floyd R. Dain, Education in the Wilderness (Lansing, MI: Michigan Historical Society, 1968), p. 204.

[25]     Dain, Education in the Wilderness, p 204; Perkinson, The Imperfect Panacea., pp. 22-27; Dexter, A History of Education in the United States, pp. 97-102; Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary?, pp. 140, 184; and Cubberley, Public Education in the United States., p. 161.

[26]     Dexter, A History of Education in the United States, pp. 100-101.

[27]     Blumenfeld, Is Public Education Necessary?, pp. 180-181; and Cubberley, Public Education in the United States., pp. 163-165.

[28]     Coulson, Market Education., p. 79.

[29]     Perkinson, The Imperfect Panacea., pp. 27-32.

[30]     Coulson, Market Education., p. 83.

[31]     Ibid., p. 85.

[32]     Jim B. Pearson and Edgar Fuller, ed., Education in the States: Historical Development and Outlook (Washington, D.C.: National Education Association of the United States, 1969), pp. 179-182, 373-376, 463-467, 565-568, 949-954, 1091-1095; and Edgar W. Knight and Clifton L. Hall, Readings in American Educational History (New York: Appleton-Century-Crafts, Inc., 1951), pp. 247, 316, 321, 359-361, 366.

[33]     Ibid.

[34]     Michigan, Constitution of 1835, art. 1, sec. 5.

[35]     As Speaker of the House, James G. Blaine proposed an amendment to prohibit public aid to religious schools—something that had been commonly accepted until then.  Many states adopted this language in their state constitutions in an effort to prevent Catholics from using public funds for education as Protestants had done for many years.

[36]     David Kirkpatrick, "The Bigotry of Blaine Amendments," Crisis in Education, February 1998, p 12.

[37]     The National Commission on Excellence in Education, "A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform,"  A Report to the Nation and the Secretary of Education, United States Department of Education, April 1983.

[38]     Ibid.

[39]     U.S. Department of Education.  National Center for Education Statistics.  Digest of Education Statistics, 1999, NCES 2000-031, May 2000, Table 39 & 90.

[40]     Ibid., Table 160 & 135.

[41]     Ibid., Table 39.

[42]     Michael Moe, Director of Global Growth Research and education analyst at Merill Lynch, presentation at The Pierre Hotel, New York City, "Freedom and Equal Opportunity in Education: A Moral Imperative and a Call to Entrepreneurs", 12 January 2000.

[43]     Chester E. Finn Jr., "Why America Has the World's Dimmest Bright Kids," The Wall Street Journal, 25 February 1998, p. A22.

[44]     Debra Viadero, "U.S. Seniors Near Bottom in World Test," Education Week, 4 March 1998, p. 1.

[45]     Benjamin Kepple, "Soaring Growth Of `Special Ed' Kids Raises Questions Of Bias, Unfairness," Investor's Business Daily, 28 September 2000, p A26; and Adrienne Fox, "Disabling Students With Labels?," Investor's Business Daily, 17 March 1998, p. A1.

[46]     Richard Whitmire, "High school graduates score F's," The Detroit News, 9 January 1998, p. 5A.

[47]     Jay P. Greene, The Cost of Remedial Education: How Much Michigan Pays When Students Fail to Learn Basic Skills, Mackinac Center for Public Policy, September 2000.  Available on the Internet at http://www.mackinac.org/article.asp?ID=3025.

[48]       Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Surveillance Summaries, 9 June 2000.  MMWR 2000;49 (No. SS-5).

[49]     "Grading Metro Detroit Schools," The Detroit News, 24 October 1999; available on the Internet at http://www.detnews.com/specialreports/1999/schoolgrade/.

[50]     See The Detroit News' "Grading Metro Detroit Schools" database at http://data.detnews.com/grades/.

[51]     James S. Coleman.  Equality of Educational Opportunity (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1966).

[52]     Eric A. Hanushek and Dongwook Kim.  "Schooling, labor force quality, and economic growth." Working Paper 5399, National Bureau of Economic Research, December 1995.

[53]     U.S. Department of Education.  National Center for Education Statistics.  Digest of Education Statistics, 1999, NCES 2000-031, May 2000, Table 160 & 135.

[54]     Paul Ciotti.  "Money and School Performance: Lessons from the Kansas City Desegregation Experiment," Policy Analysis No. 298, Cato Institute, 16 March 1998.

[55]     Dirk Johnson, "`F' for Kansas City Schools Adds to the District's Woes," The New York Times, 3 May 2000. 

[56]     James R. Rhinehart and Jackson F. Lee, Jr., "Can the Marketplace Save Our Schools?," South Carolina Policy Council Education Foundation, November 1994.

[57]     Peronet Despeignes, "Economists See School Reforms As Key To The `New Economy,'" Investor's Business Daily, 24 September 1997, p. B1. 

[58]       Ibid.

[59]     Caroline Minter Hoxby.  "Does Competition Among Public Schools Benefit Students and Taxpayers?"  Working Paper No. 4979, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1994. 

[60]     Caroline Minter Hoxby.  "Do Private Schools Provide Competition for Public Schools?"  Working Paper No. 4978,  National Bureau of Economic Research, 1994.

[61]     Matthew Ladner and Matthew J. Brouillette, The Impact of Limited School Choice on Public School Districts, Mackinac Center for Public Policy, August 2000.  Available on the Internet at http://www.mackinac.org/article.asp?ID=2962

[62]     Louann A. Bierlein, Controversial Issues in Educational Policy (Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 1993), pp. 91-92.

[63]     U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, The State of Charter Schools, 2000, January 2000; available on the Internet at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/charter4thyear/

[64]       Joseph Bast and Robert Wittman, "Educational Choice Design Guidelines," Heartland Policy Study No. 39, The Heartland Institute, May 1991, pp. 6-18; and Bierlein, Controversial Issues in Educational Policy, p. 92.

[65]     Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1962). 

[66]     John E. Coons and Stephen D. Sugarman, Family Choice in Education: A Model State System for Vouchers (Berkley, CA: University of California, Institute of Governmental Studies, 1971).

[67]     John E. Chubb and Terry M. Moe, "Politics, Markets, and the Organization of Schools," American Political Science Review, vol. 82 no. 4, December 1988, pp. 1084-1085. 

[68]     See the following web sites for up-to-date school choice legislation and court decisions: Children First America, at www.childrenfirstamerica.org/legislation.html, and The Heritage Foundation, at http://www.heritage.org/schools/.

[69]     Ibid

[70]     Ibid.

[71]       Jackson v Benson, 213 Wis.2d 1, 570 N.W.2d 407 (1998). 

[72]     See endnote 68.

[73]     Jessica L. Sandham, "Florida House Approves Bush's Voucher Plan; Senate Action Likely," Education Week, 7 April 1999, p. 22. 

[74]     Children's Educational Opportunity Foundation; available on the Internet at http://www.childrenfirstamerica.org.  Accessed on 13 July 1999.

[75]     Jeff Archer, "Voucher Proponents Claim Victory in Albany," Education Week, 11 February 1998, p. 5. 

[76]     Nina Shokraii,  "School Choice 1998: A Progress Report," The Heritage Foundation No. 172, 30 January 1998, p. 5.

[77]     Editorial, "School Choice Showdown," The Wall Street Journal, 10 March 1998, p. A22. 

[78]     Ted Forstmann, "School Choice, by Popular Demand," The Wall Street Journal, April 21, 1999, p. A22.

[79]     Partners Advancing Values in Education; available on the Internet at http://www.pave.org.  Accessed on 15 January 2001. 

[80]     Nina Shokraii and Sarah Youssef, School Choice Programs: What's Happening in the States, 1998 edition, The Heritage Foundation, pp. 18-20.

[81]       Karina Bland, "Mom's prayers answered with tuition for school," The Arizona Republic, 9 April 2000. 

[82]       Arizona Department of Revenue, 28 August 2000.

[83]     Dave A. DeShryver, "What's Working Around the Country," The Center for Education Reform, April 1999. 

[84]     Patrick L. Anderson, Richard McLellan, Joseph P. Overton, and Gary Wolfram, The Universal Tuition Tax Credit: A Proposal to Advance Parental Choice in Education,Mackinac Center for Public Policy, November 1997.  Available on the Internet at http://www.mackinac.org/article.asp?ID=362.

[85]     Pierce v. Society of Sisters; 268 U.S. 510, 535 (1925). 

[86]     Wisconsin v. Yoder; 406 U.S. 205 (1972).

[87]     Wolman v. Walter; 433 U.S. 229, 262 (1977). 

[88]     Mueller v. Allen; 77 L.Ed.2d 721, 728 (1983).

[89]     Matthew Robinson, "School Choice Goes To Court," Investor's Business Daily, June 11, 1998, p. A1. 

[90]     Mathew J. Brouillette and Jeffrey R. Williams, The Impact of School Choice on School Employee Labor Unions, Mackinac Center for Public Policy, June 1999.  Available on the Internet at http://www.mackinac.org/article.asp?ID=1926.

[91]     Jeff Archer, "Unions Pull Out Stops for Elections," Education Week, 1 November 2000, pp. 31, 34.

[92]     Joseph P. Overton, "Lessons learned from school choice wars," The Detroit News, 30 October 2000, p. 9A.  Available on the Internet at http://detnews.com/EDITPAGE/0010/30/edit4/edit4.htm

[93]     MASB (Michigan Association of School Boards) Journal Special Report, "Against vouchers?  Good offense makes best defense for public school supporters", Winter 1999, p. 7.

[94]     Denis P. Doyle, Where Connoisseurs Send Their Children to School: An Analysis of 1990 Census Data to Determine Where School Teachers Send Their Children to School, The Center for Education Reform, May 1995, p. 21. 

[95]     Overton, "Lessons learned.", p. 9A.

[96]     Jeff Archer, "NEA, AFT Leave Mark on Congress, Ballot Measures", Education Week, 15 November 2000, pp. 26, 29. 

[97]     James S. Coleman and Thomas Hoffer, Public and Private High Schools: The Impact of Communities (New York: Basic Books, 1987).

[98]     Jay P. Greene and Nicole Mellow, "Integration Where it Counts: A Study of Racial Integration in Public and Private School Lunchrooms," University of Texas at Austin, 20 August 1998. 

[99]     David Barton, "The Foundations of American Government," A Transcript of the Video and Audio by the Same Title (Aledo, TX: WallBuilder Press, 1993), pp. 8-10.

[100]   Pierce v. Society of Sisters; 268 U.S. 510, 535 (1925). 

[101]   Wisconsin v. Yoder; 406 U.S. 205 (1972).

[102]   Wolman v. Walter; 433 U.S. 229, 262 (1977). 

[103]   Mueller v. Allen; 463 U.S. 388 (1983).

[104]   Luthens v. Bair; 788 F.Supp. 1032 (S.D. la. 1992). 

[105]   Jackson v. Benson; 218 Wis. 2d 835, *; 578N.W.2d 602, **; 1998 Wisc. LEXIS 70; and Matthew Robinson, "School Choice Goes To Court," Investor's Business Daily, June 11, 1998, p. A1.

[106]   Kotterman v. Killian, 1999 WL 27517 (Ariz. 1999). 

[107]   Toney et al. v. Bower et al., 99 MR 413, IL 1,3, 7th jc (2000).

[108]   Charles J. O'Malley, Ph.D., "Who Says Private Schools Aren't Accountable?," Prepared for Temple University and Manhattan Institute, Western Regional Science Association, October 1995, p. 8. 

[109]   Danielle L. Schultz, "Lessons from America's Best Run Schools," The Washington Monthly, November 1983, pp. 52-53.

[110]   John F. Witte, The Market Approach to Education: An Analysis of America's First Voucher Program (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000), p. 69. 

[111]   Lawrence Mead, "Jobs for the Welfare Poor," Policy Review, winter 1988, p. 65.

[112]   Ted Forstmann, "School Choice, by Popular Demand," The Wall Street Journal, 21 April 1999, p. A22. 

[113]   U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.  Digest of Education Statistics, 1999, NCES 2000-031, May 2000, Table 39.

[114]   Michael Moe, Director of Global Growth Research and education analyst at Merill Lynch, presentation at The Pierre Hotel, New York City, "Freedom and Equal Opportunity in Education: A Moral Imperative and a Call to Entrepreneurs,"12 January 2000.

[115]   Digest of Education Statistics., Table 160 & 135. 

[116]   Paul Ciotti, "Money and School Performance: Lessons from the Kansas City Desegregation Experiment," Policy Analysis No. 298, Cato Institute, 16 March 1998.

[117]   Peter Applebome, "Record School Enrollments, Now and Ahead," The New York Times, 22 August 1997, p. A8. 

[118]   Janet R. Beales, Doing More With Less: Competitive Contracting for School Support Services, Mackinac Center for Public Policy and the Reason Foundation, November 1994, p. 2. 

[119]   John E. Chubb, Educational Choice, Answers to the Most Frequently Asked Questions About Mediocrity in American Education and What Can Be Done About It, The Yankee Institute for Public Policy Studies, July 1989, p. 22.

[120]     John E. Chubb and Terry M. Moe, "American Public Schools: Choice is a Panacea," The Brookings Review, summer 1990. 

[121]   Laura M. Litvan, "More Firms Paying Kids' Tuition," Investor's Business Daily, August 28, 1997, p. A1.

[122]   Anderson et. al., The Universal Tuition Tax Credit. 

[123]   Howard L. Fuller, "The Real Evidence: An Honest Research Update on School Choice Experiments," Wisconsin Interest, fall/winter 1997, p 20.

[124]     The following is representative of recent research on school choice available from the Program on Education Policy and Governance at Harvard University: David Myers, Paul E. Peterson, David Mayer, Julia Chou and William G. Howell, "School Choice in New York City After Two Years: An Evaluation of the School Choice Scholarships Program," Mathematica Policy Research and the Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, August 2000; William G. Howell, Patrick J. Wolf, Paul E. Peterson and David E. Campbell, "Test-Score Effects of School Vouchers in Dayton, Ohio, New York City, and Washington D.C.: Evidence from Randomized Field Trials", Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, August 2000; Patrick J. Wolf, Paul E. Peterson and William G. Howell, "School Choice in Washington D.C.: An Evaluation After One Year", Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, February 2000; William G. Howell and Paul E. Peterson, "School Choice in Dayton, Ohio: An Evaluation After One Year", Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, February 2000; Paul E. Peterson, David Myers and William G. Howell, "An Evaluation of the Horizon Scholarship Program in the Edgewood Independent School District, San Antonio, Texas: The First Year", Mathematica Policy Research and the Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, September 1999; Paul E. Peterson, William G. Howell and Jay P. Greene, "An Evaluation of the Cleveland Voucher Program After Two Years", Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, June 1999;  Paul E. Peterson, David Myers and William G. Howell, "An Evaluation of the New York City: School Choice Scholarships Program: The First Year", Mathematica Policy Research and the Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, October 1998; Paul E. Peterson, Jay P. Greene, William G. Howell and William McCready, "Initial Findings from an Evaluation of School Choice Programs in Washington, D.C. and Dayton, Ohio", Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, October 1998; Paul E. Peterson, Jay P. Greene, William G. Howell and William McCready, "Initial Findings from an Evaluation of School Choice Programs in Washington, D.C.", Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, September 1998;  Paul E. Peterson, Jay P. Greene, and William G. Howell, "New Findings from the Cleveland Scholarship Program: A Reanalysis of Data from the Indiana University School of Education Evaluation", Program on Education Policy and Governance and the Center for American Political Studies, Harvard University, May 1998; Paul Peterson, David Myers, Josh Haimson, and William G. Howell, "Initial Findings from the Evaluation of the New York School Choice Scholarships Foundation Program", Mathematica Policy Research and the Program on Education Policy and Governance, Harvard University, November 1997; and Jay P. Greene, William G. Howell and Paul E. Peterson, "Lessons from the Cleveland Scholarship Program", Program on Education Policy and Governance and the Center for American Political Studies, Harvard University, October 1997.  Available on the Internet at http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/pepg/.  Additional school choice information can be accessed at www.mackinac.org and www.schoolchoiceworks.org, or through the organizations listed in Appendix B on pages 57-58.

[125]       Charter Schools Today: Changing the Face of American Education (Washington, D.C.: The Center for Education Reform, 2000) pp. 116, 114.

[126]       Mark Mayes, "Lansing Schools to Unleash Marketing Push," Lansing State Journal, 5 May 1997.

[127]       Ladner and Brouillette, The Impact of Limited School Choice..

[128]       Michigan Education Report, "Painting the private school picture", Fall 2000.  Available on the Internet at www.educationreport.org/article.asp?ID=2890.

[129]       Sandra Vergari and Michael Mintrom, "Public Opinion on K-12 Education in Michigan," Michigan State of the State Survey, Briefing Paper 98-36, May 1998. 

[130]       Cited in "Empowering Parents To Drive Education Reform," Council of Baptist Pastors, p. 11.

[131]       "Detroit Public Schools poll," Detroit Free Press, 6 February 1999. 

[132]       Ibid., p. 9.

[133]       Quoted in Richman, Separating School & State., p. 11.

[134]       Debra Viadero, "U.S. Seniors Near Bottom in World Test," Education Week, 4 March 1998, p. 1 and U.S. News & World Report, 9 March 1998, p. 14.

 [135]         A Nation Still at Risk: An Education Manifesto (Washington, DC: 30 April 1998); available on the Internet at http://www.edexcellence.net/library/manifes.html.

[136]       David W. Breneman, "Remediation in Higher Education: Its Extent and Cost," in Brookings Papers on Education Policy 1998 (Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1998).

[137]          Reality Check (New York: Public Agenda, January 1998).