1. Public Act 362 of 1993 amends the Michigan School Code of 1976 to create a new type of public school in Michigan called a 'public school academy,' or charter school.

  2. Public Act 180 of 1996 amends the Michigan School Code of 1976 to permit inter-district schools of choice within Intermediate School Districts (ISDs), which are political boundaries drawn around a group of districts. Public Act 119 of 1999 modified the "schools-of-choice" program to allow students to transfer across ISD boundaries.

  3. U.S. Department of Education. The State of Charter Schools 2000: Fourth-Year Report, January 2000.

  4. "Grading Metro Detroit Schools," The Detroit News, 24 October 1999; available on the Internet at http://detnews.com/specialreports/1999/schoolgrade/index.htm.

  5. See The Detroit News' "Grading Metro Detroit Schools" database at http://data.detnews.com/grades/index.hbs.

  6. James S. Coleman. Equality of Educational Opportunity (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1966).

  7. Eric A. Hanushek and Dongwook Kim. "Schooling, labor force quality, and economic growth." Working Paper 5399, National Bureau of Economic Research, December 1995.

  8. Report Card on American Education: A State-by State Analysis 1976-1999 (Washington, D.C.: American Legislative Exchange Council, March 2000), pp. 44-45.

  9. Mark Hornbeck and Jodi Upton. "Money won' t buy success for schools," The Detroit News, 24 October 1999; available on the Internet at http://detnews.com/specialreports/1999/schoolgrade/lead/lead.htm.

  10. See The Detroit News' "Grading Metro Detroit Schools" database at http://data.detnews.com/grades/index.hbs.

  11. Paul Ciotti. "Money and School Performance: Lessons from the Kansas City Desegregation Experiment," Policy Analysis No. 298, Cato Institute, 16 March 1998.

  12. Dirk Johnson, "'F' for Kansas City Schools Adds to the District's Woes," The New York Times, 3 May 2000.

  13. Caroline Minter Hoxby. "Does Competition Among Public Schools Benefit Students and Taxpayers?" Working Paper No. 4979, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1994.

  14. Caroline Minter Hoxby. "Do Private Schools Provide Competition for Public Schools?" Working Paper No. 4978, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1994.

  15. See www.mackinac.org for a complete listing of all Mackinac Center for Public Policy research on incentive-based reforms in education.

  16. Jerry Horn and Gary Miron. Evaluation of the Michigan Public School Choice Academy Initiative (The Evaluation Center, Western Michigan University, February 1999); available on the Internet at www.mde.state.mi.us/reports/psaeval9901/psaeval.shtml.

  17. Ibid., p. xxiv.

  18. Nick Khouri, et al. Michigan's Charter School Initiative: From Theory to Practice (Public Sector Consultants Inc. and Maximus, Inc., February 1999); available on the Internet at www.mde.state.mi.us/reports/psaeval9901/psaeval.shtml.

  19. Ibid., pp. 86 and 89.

  20. David Arsen, David Plank, and Gary Sykes. School Choice Policies in Michigan: The Rules Matter (Michigan State University, October 1999); available on the Internet at http://edtech.connect.msu.edu/policy/center/choice/default.asp.

  21. "Charters need tweaking, report finds: House takes up debate on the number of schools," Detroit Free Press, 26 October 1999; available on the Internet at www.freep.com/news/education/qchart26.htm.

  22. Michigan Education Association President Luigi Battaglieri, interview on WKAR's "Off the Record" television program, 10 September 1999; available on the Internet at www.wkar.org.

  23. Michigan Association of Public School Academies; available on the Internet at www.charterschools.org.

  24. Wayne County Regional Educational Service Agency; data available on the Internet at www.wcresa.k12.mi.us.

  25. Ibid.

  26. Michigan Department of Education. 1999 Michigan School Report; available on the Internet at www.mde.state.mi.us/reports/msr/.

  27. Michigan Department of Education. 1999 Michigan School Report; available on the Internet at www.mde.state.mi.us/reports/msr/.

  28. Charles Hampton Harrison. Public Schools USA: Comparative Guide to School Districts (Peterson's Guides Inc., 1991).

  29. Ibid., 1999 Michigan School Report.

  30. Interview with Dr. Jeremy Hughes, superintendent of Dearborn City School District, August 1999.

  31. Michigan Department of Education. 1999 Michigan School Report; available on the Internet at www.mde.state.mi.us/reports/msr/.

  32. Interview with Gerald Peregord, superintendent of Flat Rock Community Schools, August 1999.

  33. Highland Park Career Academy Web site, available on the Internet at www.netib.com/GLO/HIG18414/index.htm?page1.

  34. Interview with John Stendt, superintendent of Highland Park Public Schools, September 1999.

  35. Ibid.

  36. Sheryl James. "Victim of Choice," Detroit Free Press 14 June 1999, available on the Internet at www.freep.com/news/education/qink14.htm.

  37. Ibid., James.

  38. Interview with Elmira Mosley, principal of King Academy, August 1999.

  39. Qualification for the Free or Reduced Lunch program constitutes the official definition of which students are economically disadvantaged. Inkster figure is derived from the 1999 Michigan School Report; available on the Internet at www.mde.state.mi.us/reports/msr/.

  40. Lynn Schnaiberg. "Facing an Uncertain Future Under Choice," Education Week, 29 September 1999; available on the Internet at www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=05ink.h19.

  41. Lynn Schnaiberg. "Facing an Uncertain Future Under Choice," Education Week, 29 September 1999; available on the Internet at www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=05ink.h19.

  42. Michigan Education Report, "Inkster turns to private firm to manage schools," spring 2000; available on the Internet at www.EducationReport.org .