1 The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

2 Of course, also inherent in this freedom is the individual's right to abstain from religious beliefs and practices.

3 49 Stat. 449 (1935).

4 See Robert P. Hunter, Michigan Labor Law: What Every Citizen Should Know, (August 1999) for a concise summary of the evolution of the National Labor Relations Act.

5 1 NLRB, Legislative History of the National Labor Relations Act, at 15 (1985).

6 See, e.g. Communication Workers v. Beck, 487 U.S. 735 (1988); Chicago Teachers Union v. Hudson, 475 U.S. 292, 309-310 (1986); Ferris Faculty Association v. Lehnert, 500 U.S. 507 (1991); and Abood v. Detroit Board of Education, 431 U.S. 209, 234 (1977).

7 For an excellent explication of these rights and case law underpinning them, see Robert P. Hunter, Compulsory Union Dues in Michigan (May 1997).

8 See discussion in Parts II and III of this report , infra.

9 42 U.S.C. Section 2000e(j).

10 42 U.S.C. Sections 1971, 1975 a-d, 2000a, et seq.

11 42 U.S.C. Section 2000e-2(a)(1) & (2).

12 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, Section 701(b).

13 Joel W. M. Friedman and George M. Strickler, Jr., The Law of Employment Discrimination 2nd Edition, (1987) at 43.

14 42 U.S.C. Section 2000e-2(c)(1)-(3).

15 29 C.F.R. Section 1605.1(a)(2) (1966).

16 See James G. Vantine, Jr., "Casenote: Labor Law—Religious Discrimination—Accommodation of Refusal to Pay Dues in an Agency Shop Because of Religious Beliefs," 23 Wayne L. Rev. 1171, 1175-77 (1977).

17 42 U.S.C. Section 2000e(j) (1976).

18 Id.

19 See generally, Joel W. M. Friedman and George M. Strickler, Jr., The Law of Employment Discrimination 2nd Edition, (1987), at 302-325. "While the statute does not set out the limits of these general terms, the federal courts have uniformly adopted the interpretation given to the religious exemption provision of the selective service statutes by the Supreme Court in two conscientious objector cases, Welsh v. United States, 398 U.S. 333, 90 S.Ct. 1792, 26 L.Ed.2d 308 (1970); and United States v. Seeger , 380 U.S. 163, 85 S.Ct. 850, 13 L.Ed.2d 733 (1965). Accordingly, a plaintiff need only prove (1) that his belief is 'religious' in his own scheme of things, and (2) that it is sincerely held." Id. at 302.

20 Although union security clauses typically require the employer to discharge an employee upon the union's request for failure to either join the union within a particular time frame or tender non-member "agency fees", Michigan law also permits employers to deduct unauthorized agency fees directly from the reticent employee's paycheck and remit the fee to the union upon the union's request, if the employer and union so stipulate in the collective bargaining agreement. M.C.L.A. 408.477; M.S.A. 17.277(7).

21 42 U.S.C. Sections 2000e(j), 2000e-2(a) & 2(c).

22 302 F. Supp. 292 (1969), 429 F.2d 1064 (5th Cir. 1970), cert denied, 400 U.S. 1001 (1971).

23 316 F. Supp. 1369 (D. Mass. 1969), 440 F.2d 14 (1st Cir. 1971), cert denied, 404 U.S. 872 (1971).

24 302 F. Supp 292, 293.

25 440 F. 2d 14 (1st Cir. 1971).

26 Id. at 18.

27 Charleston C.K. Wang, "Religious Accommodation versus Union Security: A Tale of Two Statutes," Northern Kentucky L. Rev. supra, note 19 at 346.

28 501 F. 2d 38 (9th Cir 1974), on remand, 428 F. Supp. 763 (C.D. Calif. 1977), aff' d 602 F. 2d 904 (9th Cir. 1979), cert. denied, 445 U.S. 928 (1980).

29 Wang, supra, note 29 at 347.

30 Id.

31 Id.

32 Id.

33 378 F. Supp. 1258 (N.D. Tex. 1974), reh. denied, 537 F.2d 1143 (5th Cir. 1976), cert. denied sub nom., International Ass' n of Machinists and Aerospace Workers v. Hopkins, 433 U.S. 908 (1977).

34 378 F. Supp. at 1262.

35 533 F.2d 163, 166 n.4.

36 Wang, supra note 29 at 350.

37 375 F. Supp. 877 (W.D. Mo. 1974), rev' d, 527 F.2d 33 (8th Cir. 1975), rev' d, 432 U.S. 63 (1977).

38 432 U.S. at 69.

39 527 F.2d 33 (8th Cir. 1975).

40 432 U.S. at 70.

41 Id. at 79. Title VII also carves out a specific exception to its provisions for seniority systems implemented without an intention to discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. See Wang, supra note 29 at 353 n. 144.

42 432 U.S. at 84.

43 Id.

44 Wang, supra note 29 at 354.

45 Id. at 354-55.

46 696 F.2d 34 (6th Cir. 1982).

47 571 F. 2d 338, 343 (6th Cir. 1978).

48 509 F. Supp. 1055 (W.D. Mich. 1981).

49 Id. at 1061.

50 696 F.2d 34, 38 (6th Cir. 1982).

51 Id.

52 Id.

53 589 F.2d 403 (9th Cir. 1978), cert denied, 439 U.S. 1072 (1979).

54 Id. Accord, Intern. Assn. of Machinists v. Boeing Corp., 833 F.2d 165) (9th Cir. 1987), cert. denied, 485 U.S. 1014 (1988); Tooley v. Martin-Marietta Corp., 648 F.2d 1239 (9th Cir. 1981) cert. denied, 454 U.S. 1098 (1981); Nottelson v. Smith Steel Workers, 643 F.2d 445, 451-52 (7th Cir. 1981); EEOC v. Davey Tree Surgery Co., 671 F. Supp. 1260 (N.D. Calif. 1987).

55 Michael Wolf, Bruce Friedman, Daniel Sutherland, Religion in the Workplace: A Comprehensive Guide to Legal Rights and Responsibilities, American Bar Association, Chapter 10, p. 138 (1998).

56 EEOC v. University of Detroit, 703 F. Supp. 1326 (E.D. Mich. 1988), rev' d and remanded, 904 F.2d 331 (6th Cir. 1990).

57 703 F. Supp. 1326, 1328.

58 Id. at 1328, n.1.

59 Id. at 1328, n.3.

60 904 F2d. at 332, n.1. "Roesser became aware of the MEA's position when it mounted a petition drive to remove a Michigan state probate judge who compelled an 11-year-old ward of the court to carry her pregnancy, the result of a rape, to term. Similarly, Roesser became aware of the NEA's position through its statement of December 16, 1981, before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Senate Judiciary Committee, in which it expressed strong opposition to 'all proposals that would constrict the availability of abortions and other reproductive heath care.' "

61 701 F. Supp at 1330 Roesser articulated his religious beliefs in an amendment to his charge against the University and the union: "My understanding of the teachings of the Church, and my personal belief, is that a member of the Church should not campaign in favor of abortion laws, vote for them or collaborate in their application . . . . Because of my sincerely held religious beliefs, I may not pay money to the union to support these pro-abortion activities nor may I associate with the union because of this activities."

62 Id.

63 701 F. Supp at 1328, n.2. "It appears undisputed that the UDPU did not take a pro-choice position on the abortion issue, and made no local expenditures to which Roesser objects. See text accompanying n. 6 infra; UDPU's Motion for Summary Judgment (Pl. 78) at 4; Invervenor's [sic] Trial Brief (Pl. 145) at 8-9."

64 904 F.2d at 333.

65 Id.

66 Id.

67 Id.

68 Id.

69 EEOC v University of Detroit, 703 F. Supp. 1326 (E.D. Mich. 1988).

70 University of Detroit, supra note 59 at 1332-33.

71 Id. at 1343.

72 Id. at 335.

73 904 F.2d at 334.

74 Id. The court suggested that a reasonable accommodation may require Roesser to pay all of the agency fee, including the amount normally forwarded to the MEA and NEA, to the UDPU, as the UDPU's activities apparently did not trouble Roesser.

75 EEOC v. AFSCME, 937 F. Supp. 166 (N.D.N.Y. 1996). See also EEOC v. Alliant Techsystems, Inc., 78 FEP Cases 37 (W.D. VA 1998) (Proposal by employer and union to allow employee to donate portion of his union dues attributable to objectionable political causes to charity, with the remainder being paid to the union to cover expenses for collective bargaining, is inadequate in view of employee's feeling that any support of a union that supports candidates and causes that he finds offensive transgresses his religious beliefs.)

76 Anderson v. General Dynamics, Convair Aerospace, 589 F.2d 397 (1978); See also Smith v. Pyro Mining Co., 827 F.2d 1081 (6th Cir. 1987); McDaniel v. Essex International, Inc., 571 F.2d 338 (6th Cir. 1978).

77 Appendix A to EEOC Guidelines, 29 CFR Sections 1605.2 & 1605.3.

78 See, e.g. Bellamy v. Mason's Stores, Inc., 368 F. Supp. 1025 (E.D. VA 1973) (Beliefs springing from the tenets of the Ku Klux Klan are not religious beliefs.)

79 See Robert P. Hunter, Compulsory Unionism in Michigan, May 1997, for a full explanation of workers' rights to limit their financial support of their union to their pro rata share of collective bargaining, grievance processing, and contract administration.

80 See, e.g. EEOC v University of Detroit, 703 F. Supp. 1326 (E.D. Mich. 1988), rev' d and remanded, 904 F.2d 331 (6th Cir. 1990). Robert Roesser's written communications describing his religious faith, interpretations of Church teachings, understanding of union activities relative to those beliefs, and acceptable accommodations.

81 42 U.S.C. Section 2000(e)-5(e)(1).

82 The Elliott-Larsen Civil Rights Act (ELCRA), MCLA 37.2101; MSA 3.548(101), is Michigan's civil rights statute. Although the statute specifies prohibited acts for labor organizations, ELCRA does not contain the same specific mention of the employer's or union's duty to accommodate religious beliefs. At the time of this writing, no cases of union-based religious discrimination arising from religious objections to union security clauses were brought under ELCRA.

83 61 Stat. 136 (1947).

84 Public Law 93-360; 88 Stat. 395 (1974).

85 Tooley v. Martin-Marietta Corp. 648 F2d 1239, (1981), cert. denied, 454 US 1098, (1981); Machinists Lodge 751 v. Boeing Co., 833 F2d 165, (CA 7 1987), cert. denied, 485 US 1014, (1988).

86 Amalgamated Transit Union Local 836 (Grand Rapids City Coach Lines), 293 NLRB No. 62, (1989).

87 Wilson v. NLRB 920 F2d 1282 (CA6, 1990), denying review of Amalgamated Transit Union Local 836, supra note 86.

88 487 US 735 (1988).

89 See General Motors, 373 U.S. 734 (1963); Pattern Makers v. NLRB, 473 U.S. 95 (1985).

90 See International Ass' n of Machinists v. Boeing Co., 833 F. 2d 165 (9th Cir. 1987), cert. denied, 485 U.S. 1014 (1988).