1. La Rae Munk, Collective Bargaining: Bringing Education to the Table (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1998), accessible by Internet at http://www.mackinac.org/article.asp?ID=791.

  2. According to the 1998 Michigan Education Directory, there were 1,058 private schools during the 1998-99 school year. A total of 782 private schools were surveyed for this study.

  3. Munk, n 1 supra, pp. 6-7.

  4. John S. Barry and Rea S. Hederman, Jr., Report Card on American Education: A State by State Analysis, 1976-1998 (American Legislative Exchange Council, 1998) Table 1.6, p. 20, accessible by Internet at www.alec.org.

  5. Michigan Department of Education, March 1999, accessible by Internet at www.state.mi.us/mde/reports/numberofnpschools.htm.

  6. Michigan Association of Public School Academies, March 1999, accessible by Internet at www.charterschools.org.

  7. Michigan Department of Education, n 5 supra. The number of home schooled children in Michigan is underrepresented because home school families are not required to report to the Michigan Department of Education. According to the Home School Legal Defense Association, there are more than 55,000 home schooled students in Michigan.

  8. Michigan Association of Public School Academies, "Charter Schools Across Michigan," January 1999.

  9. Lewis Solomon and Mary Gifford, "Teacher Accountability in Charter Schools," Brief Analysis No. 285 (National Center for Policy Analysis and CEO America, March 1999), accessible by Internet at www.ncpa.org/ba/ba285.html; and Charter School Wage and Incentive Survey (Center for Market-Based Education, fall 1998), accessible by Internet at http://www.azschoolchoice.org/pubs/04_survey.htm.

  10. Anna Bray Duff, "Unions Target Charter Schools," Investor's Business Daily, May 11, 1999, p. A1.

  11. Solomon and Gifford, n 9 supra.

  12. Phone interview with Daniel Quisenberry, president of Michigan Association of Public School Academies and phone survey of charter school principals, March 1999.

  13. As cited in David Denholm, The Impact of Unionism on the Quality of Public Education (Public Service Research Foundation, April 1994), p. 3.

  14. Michigan Department of Education, n 5 supra.

  15. Phone interview with Glen Walstra, Executive Director of Michigan Association of Non-Public Schools, March 1999. Walstra reports that 94,000 students attend Catholic schools, 22,000 attend Lutheran-Missouri Synod schools, and 21,000 attend Christian Schools International.

  16. Id.

  17. The Association of Independent Michigan Schools represents 28 schools; the Lutheran Schools-Wisconsin Synod has 51 schools; the Michigan Conference of Seventh Day Adventists has 53 schools; and the Michigan Association of Christian Schools represents 65 schools.

  18. A Mackinac Center phone survey of 9 Baptist, 4 Jewish, 19 unaffiliated religious, 10 private secular, and 3 boarding schools revealed that no teachers were unionized.

  19. >OAG, 1947-48, No 29, p. 170; OAG, 1947-48, No 496, p. 380; OAG, 1951-52, No 1368, p. 205.

  20. Charles M. Rehmus and Evan Wilner, The Economic Results of Teacher Bargaining: Michigan's First Two Years (Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, University of Michigan), no. 6 of The Research Papers, 1968, p. 2.

  21. Munk, n 1 supra, p. 8.

  22. Rehmus and Wilner, n 20 supra, pp. 3-4.

  23. Denholm, n 13 supra, p. 2.

  24. Governor Engler's Fiscal Year 2000 Budget Recommendation, First in the 21st: A Budget for Michigan's Taxpayers, Overview, p. A-5, accessible by Internet at www.state.mi.us/dmb/budget/fy2000/b00_a.htm.

  25. "Michigan Teachers Get Smallest Slice of the Personnel Pie," Michigan Education Report, Winter 1999, p. 5, accessible by Internet at www.educationreport.org/article.asp?ID=1574.

  26. From Form LM-2 filed with the U. S. Department of Labor by Michigan Education Association (November 25, 1998).

  27. Form LM-2, n 26 supra, Schedule 9; National Education Association, Estimates of School Statistics, 1997-1998; and the Employment Policy Foundation, Washington, D. C.

  28. Form LM-2, n 26 supra, Schedule 10.

  29. Andrew Bockelman and Joseph P. Overton, Michigan Education Special Services Association: The MEA's Money Machine (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1993), p. 4, accessible by Internet at www.mackinac.org/article.asp?ID=8.

  30. Munk, n 1 supra, Appendix II, pp. 57-73. Out of the 583 school districts studied, 427 districts had MESSA benefits included in their collective bargaining agreement.

  31. See Michigan School Board Leaders Association Website, www.msbla.org.

  32. Denholm, n 13 supra, p. 7.