1   29 U.S.C. §§ 151-69.

2   45 U.S.C. §§ 151-88.

3   MCL §§ 423.1-30. See also “Guide to Public Sector Labor Relations Law in Michigan: Law and Procedure before the Michigan Employment Relations Commission,” (Michigan State University and the Michigan Employment Relations Commission, 2011), 1, http://goo.gl/LhALv (accessed Sept. 23, 2012).

4   Const. 1963, art. 11, sec. 5.

5   Smith v. Arkansas State Hwy. Employees Local, 441 U.S. 463, 464 (1979).

6   Smith, 441 U.S. at 464-65.

7   “Collective Bargaining Rights: Information on the Number of Workers with and without Bargaining Rights,” (United States General Accounting Office, 2002), 8-9, http://goo.gl/kedrt (accessed Sept. 25, 2012).

8   Abood v. Detroit Bd. of Ed., 431 U.S. 209, 227 (1977).

9   Ibid. at 227-28.

10 Ibid. at 228.

11 Ibid.

12 Ibid. at 228-29.

13 Kathy Barks Hoffmann, “Public employees in state feel under attack amid flurry of bills in Legislature,” Crain’s Detroit Business, June 13, 2011, http://goo.gl/w0BWI (accessed Sept. 25, 2012).

14 “Collective Bargaining Rights: Information on the Number of Workers with and without Bargaining Rights,” (United States General Accounting Office, 2002), 8-9, http://goo.gl/kedrt (accessed Sept. 25, 2012).

15 MCL § 423.216.

16 These have been codified at MCL § 423.215(3).

17 MCL § 423.215; see also Paul Kersey, “Michigan’s Public Employment Relations Act: Public-Sector Labor Law and Its Consequences,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2009), 3-11, http://goo.gl/0iLzu (accessed Sept. 30, 2012).2009

18 MCL § 423.210(2).

19 Michigan Civil Service Commission Rules, Revised May 23, 2012, Chap. 6.

20v Michigan Civil Service Commission Rules, Revised May 23, 2012, Rule 6-8.1.

21  Michigan Civil Service Commission Rules, Revised May 23, 2012, Rule 6-11.4.

22 Michigan Civil Service Commission Rules, Revised May 23, 2012, Rule 6-7.1.

23 For more information on the workings of Michigan government labor law, see Kersey, “Michigan’s Public Employment Relations Act: Public-Sector Labor Law and Its Consequences,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2009), http://goo.gl/0iLzu (accessed Sept. 30, 2012).2009.

24 Authors’ calculations based on “Compensation of employees by industry,” (U.S Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2012),  http://www.bea.gov/regional/ (accessed Sept. 27, 2012); “Consumer Price Index,” (U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012),  http://bls.gov/cpi (accessed Sept. 27, 2012).

25 Ibid.

26 “Michigan Public School Employees’ Retirement System 2011 Annual Actuarial Valuation Report,”  (Gabriel Roeder Smith & Company, 2012), A-1, E-3; “Michigan State Employees Retirement System 2011 Annual Actuarial Valuation Report,” (Gabriel Roeder Smith & Company, 2012), A-1, E-2.

27 Richard C. Dreyfuss, “Michigan’s Public-Employee Retirement Benefits: Benchmarking and Managing Benefits and Costs,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Oct. 25, 2010), 12, http://www.mackinac.org/ archives/2010/S2010-05.pdf (accessed March 28, 2011).

28 James M. Hohman, “Bringing Balance to Public Benefits,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Jan. 3, 2011),  www.mackinac.org/ 14271 (accessed Sept. 30, 2012).

29 Andrew Bockelman and Joseph P. Overton, “Michigan Education Special Services Association: The MEA’s Money Machine,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1993), http://www.mackinac.org/8 (accessed Sept. 29, 2012); Michael Van Beek and Kyle A. Jackson, “Schools Should Fund Learning, Not Insurance Companies,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Jan. 9, 2012),  http://www.mackinac.org/16334 (accessed Sept. 29, 2012)..

30 Michael Van Beek and Kyle A. Jackson, “Schools Should Fund Learning, Not Insurance Companies,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Jan. 9, 2012),  http://www.mackinac.org/16334 (accessed Sept. 29, 2012).

31 Ibid.

32 Michael Van Beek, “Saline Schools’ ‘Last in, First out’ Victims,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, June 30, 2011), http://goo.gl/ xi8HO (accessed Sept. 29, 2012).

33 MCL § 15.564(2).

34 MCL §§ 141.1501-31 (suspended pending referendum vote); Const. 1963, art. 2, § 9; “Proposal 1: Referendum on the Emergency Manager Law,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Aug. 2, 2012),  http://www.mackinac.org/17299 (accessed Sept. 29, 2012).

35 MCL § 141.1503 (suspended pending referendum vote).

36 Jarrett Skorup, “Emergency Managers Are Bad, Bankruptcy
Far Worse,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, July 11, 2012),
http://www.mackinac.org/17222 (accessed Sept. 30, 2012)..

37 Steven Church and Alison Vekshin, “Stockton, California,
Seeks Bankruptcy After Talks Fail,” (Bloomberg, June 29, 2012),  http://goo.gl/iTxOO (accessed Sept. 29, 2012); Vernuccio, “Emergency Managers: A Distasteful Necessity,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Aug. 6, 2012),  http://www.mackinac.org/17330 (accessed
Sept. 30, 2012).

38 MCL § 141.1515(4).

39 MCL § 141.1519(1)(k)(i)-(iv).

40 MCL § 141.1503 (suspended pending referendum vote).

41 David L. Littmann, “Detroit Consent Agreement: Another Kick of the Can?,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, May 7, 2012, 2012),  http://www.mackinac.org/16907 (accessed Sept. 30, 2012).

42 Detroit Police Officers Ass’n v. Detroit, 391 Mich. 44, 53-54 (1974).

43 29 U.S.C. § 159(a).

44 MCL § 423.211; MCL § 423.215.

45 Central Michigan Faculty Ass’n v. Central Michigan Univ., 404 Mich. 268, 277 (1978).

46 Ibid.

47 Van Buren Public School Dist. v. Wayne Co. Circuit Judge, 61 Mich. App. 6, 27 (1975).

48 St. Clair Intermediate School Dist. v. Intermediate Educ. Ass’n/Michigan Educ. Ass’n, 458 Mich. 540, 551-52 (1998).

49 Ford Motor Co. v. NLRB, 441 U.S. 488 (1979).

50 Ibid. at 490.

51 Ibid. at 495.

52 Ibid. at 496.

53 Ibid. at 498.

54 In re Complaint of Rovas Against SBC Michigan, 482 Mich. 90, 93 (2008).

55 Mich. Educ. Ass’n v. Secretary of State, 489 Mich. 194, 229-30 (2011).

56 See, for instance, “Sherry Loar, Michelle Berry and Paulette Silverson v. Michigan Department of Human Services,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2009),  http://www.mackinac.org/Loar-DHS (accessed Sept. 30, 2012); “Patricia Haynes and Steven Glossop v. Service Employees International Union Healthcare Michigan and the Michigan Quality Community Care Council,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2012),  http://www.mackinac.org/17530 (accessed Sept. 30, 2012).

57 See “Motion by Melinda Day to Prevent Illegal Unionization of U of M Graduate Student Research Assistants,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2011),  http://www.mackinac.org/Day-MERC (accessed Sept. 30, 2012).

58 Michigan Civil Service Commission Rules, Revised May 23, 2012, Chap. 6. For more information on how the Civil Service System works, see Paul Kersey, “Proposal 3: Establishing a Constitutional Requirement Extending Mandatory Collective Bargaining and Binding Arbitration to State Government Employees,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2002), http://goo.gl/9cqCr (accessed Sept. 30, 2012).

59 La Rae G. Munk, “Collective Bargaining: Bringing Education to the Table “(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1998), 9, http://goo.gl/XpE06 (accessed Sept. 29, 2012).

60 MCL § 423.215(3)(a)-(p).

61 Computations by Stephen Frick, Mackinac Center for Public Policy Manager of Information Systems, and Isaiah Bierbrauer, Mackinac Center for Public Policy information system developer, using data from “Michigan School District Collective Bargaining Agreements,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2012),  http://www.mackinac.org/ depts/epi/agreement.aspx (accessed Sept. 27, 2012).

62 MCL § 423.215(3)(a)

63 MCL § 423.215(3)(b).

64 MCL § 423.215(3)(d)

65 MCL § 423.215(3)(f).

66 MCL § 423.215(3)(g).

67 MCL § 423.215(3)(h).

68 MCL § 423.215(3)(j).

69 MCL § 423.215(3)(k).

70 MCL § 423.215(3)(o).

71 MCL § 423.215(3)(p).

72 Michigan Attorney General Bill Schuette, “Memorandum to Gov. Rick Snyder re. ‘Protect Our Jobs’ Initiative Petition,”(Michigan Chamber of Commerce, 2012), 1, http://goo.gl/TehP5 (accessed Sept. 24, 2012).

73 Ibid., 4-5.

74 MCL §§ 15.561-69.

75 James M. Hohman, “Michigan $1 Billion Closer to ‘Benefits in Balance’,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2011), http://www.mackinac.org/15798 (accessed Sept. 25, 2012). For the total difference between government- and private-employee benefits in Michigan, see ———, “Benchmarking Benefits Methodology Sheet,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Dec. 17, 2010),  http://goo.gl/QvJb1 (accessed Sept. 25, 2012).

76 “2011 Public Act 101,” (Michigan Legislature, 2011), http://goo.gl/sJbAV (accessed Sept. 30, 2012).

77 “2011 Public Act 102,” (Michigan Legislature, 2011), http://goo.gl/zYUg7 (accessed Sept. 30, 2012).

78 MCL §§ 15.231-46.

79 Laracey v. Financial Institutions Bureau, 163 Mich. App. 437, 442 (1987). See also Patrick J. Wright, “FOIA Law Enhances Center’s Research and Reporting,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2011), http://www.mackinac.org/14837 (accessed Sept. 25, 2012).

80 Howell Educ. Ass’n, MEA/NEA v. Howell Bd. of Educ., 287 Mich. App. 228 (2010); see also Patrick J. Wright and Robin Luce Herrmann, “Chetly Zarko v. Howell Education Association (now Eric Rothoff v. Howell Education Association),” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2010),  http://www.mackinac.org/12752 (accessed Sept. 25, 2012).

81 “School Lunch Program: Role and Impacts of Private Food Service Companies,” (U.S. General Accounting Office, 1996), 75, http://www.gao.gov/archive/1996/rc96217.pdf (accessed April 17, 2007).

82 MCL §§ 423.231-47.

83 MCL § 423.233.

84 Ibid.

85 Const. 1963, art 11, § 5.

86 See, for instance, Detroit v. Detroit Police Officers Ass’n, 408 Mich. 410 (1980).

87 MCL § 423.210(1)(b).

88 MCL § 169.255(6).

89 Richard C. Dreyfuss, “Estimated Savings From Michigan’s 1997 State Employees Pension Plan Reform,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2011), 2, http://www.mackinac.org/15284 (accessed Feb. 16, 2012).

90 Ibid., 6.

91 MCL § 141.1519(1)(k)(i)-(iv).

92 MCL § 141.1519(1)(k), (m) (suspended pending referendum vote).

93 MCL § 333.12603.

94 W-I Forest Products Co. a Limited Partnership and Lumber and Sawmill Workers Local 2841, 304 NLRB 957 (1991).

95 Hohman, “Michigan $1 Billion Closer to ‘Benefits in Balance’,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2011), http://www.mackinac.org/15798 (accessed Sept. 25, 2012); ———, “Benchmarking Benefits Methodology Sheet,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Dec. 17, 2010),  http://goo.gl/QvJb1 (accessed Sept. 25, 2012).

96 Authors’ calculations based on Bethany Wicksall and Kyle I. Jen, “Michigan Public School Employees’ Retirement System (MPSERS) Revisions: Senate Bill 1040 (H-3) as Passed by the House and Amended by the Senate,”(Michigan House Fiscal Agency, 2012), 7-8 (Items 1, 4), http://goo.gl/wZY51 (accessed Sept. 25, 2012).

97 AFT-Michigan v. Michigan, COA No. 312260.

98 James M. Hohman and Josiah M. Kollmeyer, “Michigan School Privatization Survey 2011,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2011), http://goo.gl/U8I6D (accessed Sept. 30, 2012).

99 Authors’ calculations based on multiple Mackinac Center school privatization surveys available at www.mackinac.org. See, for instance, Hohman and Kollmeyer, “Michigan School Privatization Survey 2011.”

100  MCL § 141.1519(1)(k)(i)-(iv) (suspended pending referendum vote).

101  Dreyfuss, “Estimated Savings From Michigan’s 1997 State Employees Pension Plan Reform,”(Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2011), 6, http://www.mackinac.org/15284 (accessed Feb. 16, 2012).

102  Authors’ calculations based on Wicksall and Jen, “Michigan Public School Employees’ Retirement System (MPSERS) Revisions: Senate Bill 1040 (H-3) as Passed by the House and Amended by the Senate,”(Michigan House Fiscal Agency, 2012), 8 (Items 4, 6), http://goo.gl/wZY51 (accessed Sept. 25, 2012).

103 Ibid.