1   “The Clean, Renewable, and Efficient Energy Act,” (Michigan Legislature, 2008), Public Act 295 of 2008, http://goo.gl/xq0rs (accessed June 13, 2012).

2   MCL § 460.1011(j).

3   MCL § 460.1005(5)(a); MCL § 460.1027(3).

4   MCL § 460.1011(i).

5   MCL § 460.1011(i); MCL § 460.1011(k).

6   MCL § 460.1027(3)(a)(i)-(iii).

7   MCL § 460.1027(3)(b).

8   MCL § 460.1045(2)(a)-(c).

9   MCL § 460.1045(3).

10 MCL § 460.1039(1); MCL § 460.1039(2)(a).

11 MCL § 460.1039(2)(d)-(e).

12 “Annual Energy Outlook 2011: Renewable Energy Generation by Fuel, Reliability First Corporation/Michigan, Reference case,” (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2011), http://goo.gl/ytK2u (accessed July 26, 2012).

13 “Cloudiness — Mean Number of Days,” (National Climatic Data Center, 2008), http://goo.gl/zfSpp (accessed June 15, 2012).

14 MCL § 460.1039(3)(a)-(c).

15 MCL § 460.1027(1)-(2).

16 “Petition to add Michigan’s Clean Renewable Electric Energy Standard to the Michigan Constitution,” (Michigan Energy Michigan Jobs, 2012), http://goo.gl/UtNUO (accessed Sept. 3, 2012).

17   Ibid.

18 Ibid.

19 Abby Grimmett, “Group Wants to Increase Renewable Energy Requirement,” WLNS Lansing 2012, http://goo.gl/NHW0I (accessed Aug. 29, 2012).

20 “How Less Became More: Wind, Power and Unintended Consequences in the Colorado Energy Market,” (Bentek Energy LLC, 2010), http://goo.gl/kr6qN (accessed Aug. 29, 2012).

21 John D. Quackenbush, Orjiakor N. Isiogu and Greg R. White, “Report on the Implementation of the P.A. 295 Renewable Energy Standard and the Cost-Effectiveness of the Energy Standards,” (Michigan Public Service Commission, 2012), http://goo.gl/uALWp (accessed Sept. 12, 2012).

22 See, for instance, MCL § 460.1047(3).

23 Orjiakor N. Isiogu, Monica Martinez, and Greg R. White, “Report on the Implementation of the P.A. 295 Renewable Energy Standard and the Cost-Effectiveness of the Energy Standards,” (Michigan Public Service Commission, 2011), 23-24, http://goo.gl/fqHax (accessed Aug. 29, 2012).

24 “Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2011,” (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2011), http://goo.gl/DG6Qk (accessed June 13, 2012).

25 “Wind Power: Capacity Factor, Intermittency, and what happens when the wind doesn’t blow?,” (Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, University of Massachusetts at Amherst), http://goo.gl/24r2u (accessed Aug. 29, 2012).

26 Tom Hewson and Dave Pressman, “Waxman-Markey RES creates land-use dilemmas,” Public Utilities Fortnightly (2009): 61, www.fortnightly.com/fortnightly/2009/08/renewable-overload (accessed Sept. 3, 2012).

27 Philip Bratby, “Memorandum on The Economics of Renewable Energy,”(British Parliament, 2008), http://goo.gl/oyh1Y (accessed Aug. 29, 2012).

28 Nicolas Boccard, “Capacity factor of wind power realized values vs. estimates,” Energy Policy 37, no. 7  (2009) http://goo.gl/IpDRc (accessed Aug. 29, 2012).

29 Tom Hewson, “Testimony re. East Haven,”(Industrial Wind Action Group, 2005), http://goo.gl/CMZVD (accessed Aug. 29, 2012).

30 Boccard, “Capacity factor of wind power realized values vs. estimates,” Energy Policy 37, no. 7 (2009) http://goo.gl/IpDRc (accessed Aug. 29, 2012).

31 See “The Capacity Factor of Wind, Lightbucket,” http://lightbucket.wordpress.com/2008/03/13/the-capacity-factor-of-wind-power/ (accessed December 2011); “FAQ - Output,” (National Wind Watch), http://www.wind-watch.org/faq-output.php (accessed Aug. 30, 2012).

32 “Biomass Energy Basics,” (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biomass.html (accessed Aug. 30, 2012).

33 Hewson, “Testimony re. East Haven,”(Industrial Wind Action Group, 2005), 61, http://goo.gl/CMZVD (accessed Aug. 29, 2012).

34 Heather Stewart, “High costs of basics fuels global food fights,” The Observer, Feb. 17, 2007, http://goo.gl/7tL9a (accessed Aug. 30, 2012).

35 Celia W. Dugger, “As Prices Soar, U.S. Food Aid Buys Less,” New York Times, Sept. 29, 2007, http://goo.gl/SYFCA (accessed Aug. 30, 2012).

36 MCL § 1027(3)(a)-(b).

37 “Petition to add Michigan’s Clean Renewable Electric Energy Standard to the Michigan Constitution,” (Michigan Energy Michigan Jobs, 2012), http://goo.gl/UtNUO (accessed Sept. 3, 2012).

38 “State Renewable Electricity 2007,” (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2009), 68, ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/renewables/ srp2007.pdf (accessed Sept. 10, 2012); “Table 62. Electric Power Projections for EMM Region East Central Area Reliability Coordination Agreement - 01,” (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2007), (accessed Sept. 9, 2012).

39 “Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2011,” (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2011), (accessed June 13, 2012).

40 “Table 5A. Residential Average Monthly Bill by Census Division, and State 2010,” (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2011), (accessed Sept. 18, 2012); “Table 5B. Commercial Average Monthly Bill by Census Division, and State 2010,” (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2011), (accessed Sept. 18, 2012); “Table 5C. Industrial Average Monthly Bill by Census Division, and State 2010,” (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2011), (accessed Sept. 18, 2012).

41  “Electric Power Monthly: Table 8. Retail Sales, Revenue, and Average Retail Price by Sector, 1990 Through 2010,” (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2012), (accessed Sept. 4, 2012).