1. Margaret O’Connor, "The Price We Pay for Government Work," Viewpoint on Public Issues No. 95-35, December 4, 1995, Mackinac Center for Public Policy.

  2. William G. Keane, Win Win or Else: Collective Bargaining in An Age of Public Discontent, (Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc., 1996), p 4.

  3. James D. Koerner, Who Controls American Education? (Boston: Beacon Press, 1968), pp 36-37.

  4. 1947 PA 336, MCL 423.201, et. seq.; MSA 17.455(1), et seq.

  5. OAG, 1947-48, No 29, p 170; OAG, 1947-48, No 496, p 380; OAG, 1951-52, No 1368, p 205.

  6. 1947 PA 336, MCL 423.201, 211 as amended provides: "Representatives designated or selected for purposes of collective bargaining by the majority of the public employees in a unit appropriate for such purposes, shall be the exclusive representatives of all the public employees in such unit for the purposes of collective bargaining in respect to rates of pay, wages, hours of employment or other conditions of employment, and shall be so recognized by the public employer: Provided, That any individual employee at any time may present grievances to his employer and have the grievances adjusted, without intervention of the bargaining representative, if the adjustment is not inconsistent with the terms of a collective bargaining contract or agreement then in effect, provided that the bargaining representative has been given opportunity to be present at such adjustment."

  7. MCL 423.204 Repealed by 1965 PA 379, 2.

  8. Charles M. Rehmus and Evan Wilner, The Economic Results of Teacher Bargaining: Michigan’s First Two Years (Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, University of Michigan), no. 6 of The Research Papers, 1968, p 2.

  9. Koerner, n 3 supra, p 36.

  10. Id.

  11. Rehmus, n 8 supra, pp 3-4.

  12. Id.

  13. Id., pp 11-16.

  14. HB 5128, House Legislative Analysis.

  15. Michigan State AFL-CIO v Michigan Employment Relations Comm, Wayne Co. Circuit Court no. 94-420562-CL, 1995.

  16. Michigan State AFL-CIO v Michigan Employment Relations Comm, Michigan Educ Ass’n v Governor, 453 Mich 362; 551 NW2d 165 (1995).

  17. Mike Thompson, "Deal-hammering time arrives in Saginaw," The Saginaw News, February 9, 1998, p A1.

  18. Detroit Police Officers Ass’n v Detroit, 391 Mich 44; 214 NW2d 803 (1974).

  19. Amalgamated Transit Union, Local 1564, AFL-CIO v Southeastern Michigan Transportation Authority, 437 Mich 441; 473 NW2d 249 (1991).

  20. Detroit Police Officers Ass’n, n 18 supra.

  21. Detroit Police Officers Ass’n, n 18 supra, p 55; Van Buren Pub School Dist v Wayne Circuit Judge, 61 Mich App 6; 232 NW2d 278 (1975).

  22. Central Michigan Univ Faculty Ass’n v Central Michigan Univ, 404 Mich 268; 273 NW2d 21 (1978).

  23. Id.

  24. City of Saginaw, 1982 MERC Lab Op 727; City of Ishpeming, 1995 MERC Lab Op 687.

  25. Genesee Co, 1992 MERC Lab Op 295.

  26. Kent Co Educ Ass’n v Cedar Springs Pub Schools, 157 Mich App 59; 403 NW2d 494 (1987).

  27. North Dearborn Heights, 1966 MERC Lab Op 434.

  28. West Ottawa Educ Ass’n v West Ottawa Pub Schools Bd of Educ, 126 Mich App 306; 337 NW2d 533 (1983).

  29. Id.

  30. Taylor Federation of Teachers v Taylor School Dist Bd of Educ, 75 Mich App 476; 255 NW2d 651 (1977).

  31. St. Joseph Pub Schools, 1985 MERC Lab Op 454.

  32. Woodhaven School Dist, 1982 MERC Lab Op 1540.

  33. Spring Lake Pub Schools, 1988 MERC Lab Op 362.

  34. Garden City Pub Schools, 91 MERC Lab Op 588 (1982).

  35. First National Maintenance Corp v NLRB, 452 US 666, 678; 101 S Ct 2573; 69 L Ed2d 318 (1981).

  36. Id.

  37. Westwood Community Schools, 1972 MERC Lab Op 313.

  38. Central Michigan Univ Faculty Ass’n, n 22 supra pp 280-83.

  39. West Ottawa Educ Ass’n, n 29 supra.

  40. Bay City Educ Ass’n v Bay City Pub Schools, 430 Mich 370; 422 NW2d 504 (1988) lv den 432 Mich 853.

  41. Bullock Creek School Dist of Midland Co, 1970 MERC Lab Op 112.

  42. Bd of Educ of the School Dist of the City of Detroit, 1974 MERC Lab Op 813.

  43. Portland Pub Schools, 1977 MERC Lab Op 1123.

  44. John Pagen, "Michigan Learned These Seven Bargaining Lessons—the Hard Way," American School Board Journal, August 1975, p 37.

  45. Diane Divoke, "Teachers, Covet Your Policy Power," American School Board Journal, June 1979, pp 30-31.

  46. MCL 380.1202a; MSA 15.41202(1).

  47. Wayne Co Civil Service Comm, 1975 MERC Lab Op 1000.

  48. Detroit Police Officers Ass’n, n 18 supra, pp 54-55.

  49. Male v Grand Rapids Educ Ass’n, 98 Mich App 742; 295 NW2d 918 (1980).

  50. 1994 PA 112, 215 (3) and (4), MCL 423.215 (3) and (4).

  51. Robert C. O’Reilly, "Things a Board Ought Never Bargain," presented at the Annual Meeting of the National School Boards Association, 1983, p 2, "The discussion of an expanded bargaining concept for education has been offered only to demonstrate that school boards are so bounded by a short range view, and school administrators so unaware of some larger perspectives of labor relations, that boards are operationally wedded to a system that may not produce the best service in that school community for the money spent."

  52. Whittemore-Prescott Public School Master Contract, 1994-1997, p 1 provides, "As American culture becomes more urban and school systems grow in size, it is necessary that educational groups rather than individuals express conditions of employment."

  53. Ronald R. Booth, "Collective Bargaining and the School Board Member: A Practical Perspective for the 1990s," Illinois Association of School Boards, 1993, pp 11-12.

  54. Id.

  55. Reported by Myron Lieberman, unpublished manuscript, Education Policy Institute, September 26, 1996.

  56. Thompson, n 17 supra.

  57. Albert Shanker, "Al Shanker Speaks on Unions and Collective Bargaining," Education Week, May 14, 1997, pp 35-36.

  58. Damon Darlin, "To whom do our schools belong?" Forbes, September 23, 1996, p 66.

  59. Shanker, n 57 supra, p 36.

  60. Kathleen Harward, Market-Based Education: A New Model for Schools, (Fairfax, VA: Center for Market Processes, 1995), pp 23-29.

  61. 1976 PA 451, 1102, MCL 380.1102; MSA 15.41102.

  62. Booth, n 53 supra, p 15.

  63. Quoted in Sol Stern, "How Teachers’ Unions Handcuff Schools," City Journal, Manhattan Institute, Spring 1997, p 35.

  64. Shanker, n 57 supra, pp 35.

  65. A nonscientific survey of variously sized school districts across the state was conducted by the author, showing that salaries and benefits of all employees consumed an average of 82% of total school budgets.

  66. O’Reilly, n 51 supra, p 2.

  67. Keane, n 1 supra, p 25.

  68. Telephone interview with the president of the Frankenmuth Teachers’ Professional Organization, February 25, 1998.

  69. Thompson, n 17 supra.

  70. MCL 423.215 (2).

  71. City of Saginaw, 1990 MERC Lab Op 755.

  72. Morley Stanwood Community Schools, Master Contract, 1997-2000, p 2.

  73. City of Westland, 1987 MERC Lab Op 793.

  74. Comstock Park Pub Schools, 1987 MERC Lab Op 267.

  75. This sample clause is a composite of good management rights clauses found in several existing contracts, including the Fowler Public School Master Agreement, 1997-2000; Baldwin Community Schools Master Agreement, 1997-2000; and Ida Public Schools Master Agreement, 1996-1999.

  76. MCL 423.211.

  77. "Forced Unionism is Shutting Down American Education," National Right to Work Committee.

  78. MCL 423.210 (1) provides that, "nothing in this act or in any law of this state shall preclude a public employer from making an agreement with an exclusive bargaining representative . . . to require as a condition of employment that all employees in the bargaining unit pay . . . a service fee equivalent to the amount of dues uniformly required of members . . . ." Subsection 2 further provides that, "if such requirement is negotiated . . . all employees of the bargaining unit shall share fairly in the financial support" of paying the service fee. (Emphases added.)

  79. Stern, n 63 supra, p 40.

  80. Caroline M. Hoxby, "How Teachers’ Unions Affect Education Production," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, August 1996, p 671.

  81. Id., pp 701-12.

  82. See, e.g., Pennfield Public Schools Master Agreement, August 20, 1996, art II, p 1.

  83. Abood v Detroit Bd of Educ, 431 U.S. 209, 234; 97 S Ct 1782, 1799; 52 L Ed2d 261, 283-84 (1977).

  84. Chicago Teachers Union, Local No. 1 v Hudson, 475 US 292, 309-310; 106 S Ct 1066, 1077-78; 89 L Ed2d 232, 238-39 (1986).

  85. US Sup. Ct., no. 97-428, May 1998.

  86. See, e.g., New Buffalo Public Schools Agreement, 1997-1999 p 7.

  87. See, e.g., North Muskegon Public Schools Master Agreement, August 16, 1994, p 67.

  88. Ann Arbor Bd of Educ v Abrahams, 202 Mich App 121; 507 NW2d 802 (1993). See also Internet URL http://www.mackinac.org/9411.

  89. Grief Brothers Cooperage Corp, 42 LA 555 (1964).

  90. Bob Chase, "Running on Empty: Why Our New Unions Must Put Teacher Quality First," Education Week, January 21, 1998, p 14.

  91. Stern, n 63 supra, p 41.

  92. MCL 38.101, et. seq.; MSA 15.2001 et seq.

  93. See, e.g., Deckerville EA Contract, 1997-2000, p 28.

  94. 1997-98 NEA Resolutions F-9.

  95. 1997-98 NEA Resolutions F-8.

  96. Saginaw Public School Master Agreement, 1995-1998, Appendix A, p 70.

  97. 1995 PA 289, 1, MCL 380.1250.

  98. Shanker, n 57 supra, p 37.

  99. See n 65.

  100. DRM Stakor & Associates, Inc., school district strategic planning documents, 1990-1997.

  101. Frank Webster, "Teachers Deserve Good Benefits; School Deserve to Know What They Cost," Viewpoint on Public Issues No. 98-20, July 6, 1998, Mackinac Center for Public Policy.

  102. Matthew Robinson, "Across the Table from Unions," Investor’s Business Daily, March 19, 1998, p 1A.

  103. Andrew P. Bockelman and Joseph P. Overton, Michigan Education Special Services Association: The MEA’s Money Machine (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1993), available on Internet at http://www.mackinac.org/studies/9310messa/index.htm.

  104. See n 101.

  105. As reported in Rehmus, n 8 supra, p 10.

  106. Id., p 19.

  107. Chester E. Finn and Michael J. Petrilli, "The Elixir of Class Size," The Weekly Standard, March 9, 1998, p 16.

  108. Id.

  109. Id.

  110. Abood, n 83 supra.

  111. Id., pp 209, 234.

  112. Hudson, n 84 supra.

  113. 500 US 507; 111 S Ct 1950; 114 L Ed2d 572 (1991).

  114. 124 F3rd 788 (CA 6 1997).

  115. U.S. Sup. Ct., No 97-1056 (pending review).

  116. U.S. Sup. Ct., No 97-428, May 1998.

  117. U.S.D.C., E. D. of Mich, File No 92-CV-10443-BC.

  118. Weaver v Univ of Cincinnati, 970 F2d 1523 (CA 6 1992).

  119. Id., p 1538.

  120. See n 101.

  121. A list of the school districts that correspond to these figures may be obtained from the author.

  122. See n 121.