1 "MichiganVotes: 2002 House Bill 5883," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.michiganvotes.org/2002-HB-5883 (accessed May 28, 2009); "MichiganVotes: 2001 Senate Bill 671," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.michiganvotes.org/2001-SB-671 (accessed May 28, 2009); "MichiganVotes: 2001 Senate Bill 463," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.michiganvotes.org/2002-SB-463 (accessed May 28, 2009).

2 "MichiganVotes: 2004 House Bill 6074 (Retain Motor Fuel 'Regulatory Fee')," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.michigan votes.org/2004-HB-6074 (accessed May 28, 2009).

3 "MichiganVotes: 2004 Senate Bill 1111 (Advance Due-Date for County Tax Collections)," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.michigan votes.org/2004-SB-1111 (accessed May 28, 2009); "MichiganVotes: 2004 Senate Bill 1112 (Advance County Tax Due-Date)," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.michiganvotes.org/2004-SB-1112 (accessed May 28, 2009).

4 "MichiganVotes: 2004 House Bill 5632 (Raise Cigarette Tax by 75 Cents)," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.michiganvotes.org/2004-HB-5632 (accessed June 1, 2009); "MichiganVotes: 2004 Senate Bill 1146 (Eliminate Sunset on Medicaid-Related Hospital Bed Tax)," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.michiganvotes.org/2004-SB-1146 (accessed May 28, 2009). 

5 See, for instance, "Act No. 261: Public Acts of 2008," (State of Michigan, 94th Legislature, 2008), 16, http://www.legislature.mi.gov/documents/2007-2008/publicact/pdf/2008-PA-0261.pdf, (accessed June 2, 2009); Jennifer M. Granholm, "Executive Order 2009-22," (Officer of the Governor, State of Michigan, 2009), http://www.michigan.gov/documents/gov/EO2009-22_277339_7.pdf, (accessed June 2, 2009); and "Act No. 83: Public Acts of 2001," (State of Michigan: 91st Legislature, 2001), 13, http://www.legislature. mi.gov/documents/2001-2002/publicact/pdf/2001-PA-0083.pdf, (accessed June 2, 2009).

6 Jennifer M. Granholm and Robert L. Emerson, "Executive Budget: Fiscal Year 2010," (Michigan Department of Management and Budget, 2009), C-32, http://www.michigan.gov/documents/budget/budget20small_267048_7.pdf, (accessed May 27, 2009).

7 See, for instance, "Michigan Faces Serious Shortage of Physicians," Michigan Department of Community Health, http://www.michigan.gov/ mdch/0,1607,7-132-8347-214107--,00.html (accessed May 28, 2009); or "MIRS Capitol Capsule, Wednesday, May 20, 2009: DCH Director: Cuts May Shutter Some Hospitals," Michigan Information & Research Service Inc., http://mirsnews.com/capsule.php?gid=3083#20425 (accessed May 28, 2009).

8 "Financing Michigan Retired Teacher Pension and Health Care Benefits," (Citizens Research Council of Michigan, 2004), 3, http://crcmich.org/PUBLICAT/2000s/2004/rpt337.pdf.

9 "MichiganVotes: 2007 Senate Bill 436 (Balance 2006-2007 Budget with Cuts, Accounting Shifts, and Debt)," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.michiganvotes.org/2007-SB-436 (accessed May 28, 2009).

10 Jessica Runnels, "Agriculture: S.B. 237," (Senate Fiscal Agency, 2009), 2, http://www.senate.michigan.gov/sfa/Departments/DecisionDoc/ DDagr_web.pdf, (accessed May 28, 2009); Bruce Baker, "State Police: S.B. 253," (Senate Fiscal Agency, 2009), 6, http://www.senate.michigan.gov/sfa/ Departments/DecisionDoc/DDstp_web.pdf, (accessed May 28, 2009). Actually, the governor proposed shifting a total of $9.3 million to State Police crime labs, and the horse racing subsidy comprised most of the shift.

11 See, for instance, the findings and literature review in Michael D. LaFaive and Michael Hicks, "MEGA: A Retrospective Assessment," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2005), http://www.mackinac.org/archives/ 2005/s2005-02.pdf, (accessed May 27, 2009).

12 Jennifer M. Granholm, "Priorities for Michigan's Economic Future: Jobs, Education and Protecting Families (State of the State Address 2009)," (Office of the Governor, 2009), 4, http://www.michigan.gov/ documents/gov/SOS2009_265915_7.pdf, (accessed May 27, 2009).

13 Author's calculations based on "General Government: FY 2009-10 Appropriation Bill S.B. 245," (Senate Fiscal Agency, 2009), 23, http://www .senate.michigan.gov/sfa/Departments/DecisionDoc/ DDgen_web.pdf, (accessed May 28, 2009), and Runnels, "Agriculture: S.B. 237," 8.

14 Michael D. LaFaive, "Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's State Budget - 2nd Edition," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2004), 10, http://www.mackinac.org/archives/2004/s2004-02.pdf, (accessed May 27, 2009).

15 Author's calculations based on Elizabeth Pratt and Maria Tyszkiewicz, "Michigan Strategic Fund: S.B. 245," (Senate Fiscal Agency, 2009), 3, http://www.senate.michigan.gov/sfa/Departments/DecisionDoc/DDmsf_web.pdf, (accessed May 29, 2009), and Maria Tyszkiewicz and Elizabeth Pratt, "History, Arts, and Libraries: S.B. 247," (Senate Fiscal Agency, 2009), 3, http://www.senate.michigan.gov/sfa/Departments/DecisionDoc/DDhal_web.pdf, (accessed May 29, 2009).

16 Michael D. LaFaive, "Protecting Art From Politicians," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.mackinac.org/7663 (accessed May 28, 2009).

17 Granholm, "Priorities for Michigan's Economic Future: Jobs, Education and Protecting Families (State of the State Address 2009)," 4.

18 Elizabeth Pratt and Maria Tyszkiewicz, "FY 2009-10 History, Arts, and Libraries Budget, S.B. 247 (S-1, Draft 1): Senate Subcommittee Rec.," (Senate Fiscal Agency, 2009), http://www.legislature.mi.gov/ documents/2009-2010/billanalysis/Senate/pdf/2009-SFA-0247-S.pdf, (accessed May 28, 2009).

19 Ibid. See also Mitchell E. Bean et al, "Review and Analysis of the FY 2009-10 Executive Budget Recommendation," (House Fiscal Agency, 2009), 98, http://house.michigan.gov/hfa/PDFs/rev_analy09-10.pdf, (accessed
May 28, 2009).

20 LaFaive, "Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's State Budget - 2nd Edition," 67.

21 Granholm, "Priorities for Michigan's Economic Future: Jobs, Education and Protecting Families (State of the State Address 2009)," 4.

22 Russ Harding, "State Government Needs Structural Change, Not Reorganization," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.mackinac.org/8650 (accessed May 29, 2009).

23 Granholm and Emerson, "Executive Budget: Fiscal Year 2010," B-17. The executive budget also notes that "state-imposed fees will decline by over $400,000."

24 Russ Harding, "Regulation's Real-World Impact," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.mackinac.org/7667 (accessed May 29, 2009).

25 ---, "Hart Enterprises: A Wetland Case Study," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2008), http://www.mackinac.org/archives/2008/sp2008-04.pdf, (accessed May 27, 2009).

26 Ibid., 4-6.

27 Ibid., 5.

28 Michael D. LaFaive and Russ Harding, "Requiem for Reason," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.mackinac.org/9899 (accessed May 29, 2009).

29 "Wetland Inventory Maps," Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, http://www.michigan.gov/deq/0,1607,7-135-3313_3687-11178--,00.html (accessed May 27, 2009). For a more detailed discussion of this point, see also Harding, "Hart Enterprises," 7, 8 (including footnote), 12.

30 See, for instance, Patrick J. Wright, "Rapanos v. United States and Carabell v. United States Army Corps of Engineers: An Amicus Curiae Brief to the U.S. Supreme Court," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2006), 5-9, 23-29, http://www.mackinac.org/archives/2005/wetlandsbrief-06-01.pdf, (accessed May 27, 2009).

31 Granholm and Emerson, "Executive Budget: Fiscal Year 2010," B-31.

32 Mitchell E. Bean et al, "State of Michigan Fiscal Year 2008-09: Appropriations Summary and Analysis," (House Fiscal Agency, 2008), http://house.michigan.gov/hfa/PDFs/summ_analy08-09.pdf, (accessed May 29, 2009).

33 Granholm and Emerson, "Executive Budget: Fiscal Year 2010," C-31.

34 Richard Vedder and Matthew Denhart, "Michigan Higher Education: Facts and Fiction," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2007), 2, http://www.mackinac.org/archives/2007/s2007-08.pdf, (accessed May 29, 2009).

35 Joseph P. Overton and Aaron Steelman, "Advancing Civil Society: A State Budget to Strengthen Michigan Culture," (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1996), 39, http://www.mackinac.org/237; LaFaive, "Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's State Budget - 2nd Edition," 55.

36 LaFaive, "Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's State Budget - 2nd Edition," 56.

37 Author's calculations based on Kyle Jen and Ellen Jeffries, "State University Summary Data: Fiscal Years 2001-02 to 2005-06," (House Fiscal Agency, 2007), 20, http://www.house.mi.gov/hfa/PDFs/Hied%20profiles%20May%2007.pdf, (accessed May 31, 2009); Kyle Jen and Ellen Jeffries, "State University Summary Data: Fiscal Years 2003-04 to 2007-08," (House Fiscal Agency, 2009), 31, http://www.house.mi.gov/hfa/PDFs/Hied%20profiles%20Apr%202009.pdf, (accessed May 31, 2009); "Act No. 352, Public Acts of 2004," (State of Michigan, 92nd Legislature, 2004), http://www.legislature.mi.gov/documents/2003-2004/publicact/pdf/2004-PA-0352.pdf, (accessed June 1, 2009); "Act No. 136, Public Acts of 2007," (State of Michigan, 94th Legislature, 2007), http://www.legislature.mi.gov/documents/2007-2008/publicact/pdf/2007-PA-0136.pdf, (accessed June 1, 2009). The House Fiscal Agency's state university summary data for the two years are not directly comparable due partly to a change in the accounting year utilized and partly to a delayed 2006-2007 payment made in 2007-2008. To get comparable figures for the two years, initial state appropriations for each year were added to tuition and fees (per House Fiscal Agency Senior Fiscal Analyst Kyle I. Jen, telephone interview with James Hohman, June 1, 2009).

38 Jen and Jeffries, "State University Summary Data: Fiscal Years 2003-04 to 2007-08," 9, and House Fiscal Agency Senior Fiscal Analyst Kyle I. Jen, telephone interview with James Hohman, April 17, 2009.

39 Richard Vedder, "Higher Education and Economic Development," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.mackinac.org/8175 (accessed May 27, 2009).

40 James Hohman and Jack McHugh, "Putting the University's Cart Before the Economy's Horse," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.mackinac.org/9359 (accessed May 31, 2009).

41 LaFaive, "Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's State Budget - 2nd Edition," 57.

42 Jack McHugh, "State College Money Should Follow Students, Not Lobbyists," Mackinac Center for Public Policy, http://www.mackinac.org/7703 (accessed May 31, 2009).

43 Ibid.

44 Granholm and Emerson, "Executive Budget: Fiscal Year 2010," A-7.

45 Bean et al, "Review and Analysis of the FY 2009-10 Executive Budget Recommendation," 54.

46 Margaret Alston, Susan Frey, and Steve Stauff, "Community Health FY 2009-10 Appropriations Summary: As Reported from House Subcommittee, HB 4436 (H-1) Draft 1," (House Fiscal Agency, 2009), http://www.legislature.mi.gov/documents/2009-2010/billanalysis/ House/pdf/2009-HLA-4436-2.pdf, (accessed May 31, 2009).

47 LaFaive, "Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's State Budget - 2nd Edition," 31.

48 Granholm and Emerson, "Executive Budget: Fiscal Year 2010," B-31.

49 "Act No. 353, Public Acts of 2004," (State of Michigan, 92nd Legislature, 2004), 3, http://www.legislature.mi.gov/documents/2003-2004/publicact/pdf/2004-PA-0353.pdf, (accessed May 31, 2009).

50 LaFaive, "Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's State Budget - 2nd Edition," 58.