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Michigan Student Opportunity Scholarships: Overview and Fiscal Analysis

… passed legislation in October 2021 to create the Student Opportunity Scholarship Program, which would give thousands of families across the state more spending power to help meet their children's educational needs. This report unpacks this proposed education savings account program and analyzes its potential …

Students Led Astray by Environmental Indoctrination

A Michigan high school student contacted the Mackinac Center, asking for help with research on pollution and its impacts on the natural environment. … a fully renewable electricity system, Michigan residents would need to spend tens of billions and carpet the state with wind turbines and solar panels, …

Using Atypical Households to Represent All Households

… comparison to estimate the spending needs for a very specific, … young children not yet of school age face significantly higher … consider a family of four with school-age children enrolled in public schools. While this household is similar … that this household needs to spend more than $1,100 per month …

Overall Funding Impact

… combine to provide Michigan schools with substantial revenues … All told, Michigan public school revenues increase by up to … additional dollars will boost K-12 spending for each of the current and … relief bills, Flint Community Schools will receive nearly twice … districts, including charter schools, in terms of the total combined …

Breaking Down the CARES Act

… relief to the nation’s public schools. Federal policymakers gave broad flexibility to school districts on how the relief … of that, Michigan public schools received four streams of supplementary … follows: Districts and charter schools across the state received … Michigan agencies reported spending only one-eighth, or $48.8 …

Flex Learning: Two Possible Fiscal Approaches

… a mechanism that redirects school aid dollars to extra support … equivalent to a public charter school’s authorizer fee. This amount … would remain to the family’s spending discretion. Low-income students … providers, whether they be school districts, charter schools or institutions of higher …

A New Model for Flexible Learning

… learners greater agency, especially for middle-school and secondary students and their families. Charting … per-pupil allotment to “purchase” courses from schools for both online and face-to-face instruction. … broad menu of providers. Accountability for this spending can be achieved through tested and reported measures …

Current Operation of Trust Funds

… Investment returns finance the annual spending programs allowed through the funds. … language prohibits the state from spending more than half of the annual revenue … department, determines how much to spend each year. The board also decides … Gregory J. Parker, “Michigan Public School Employees’ Retirement System Retirement …

Conservation

… Gardens Participants discussed the idea that the public is willing to spend private dollars to enjoy and protect the ecosystem, a benefit that society … activities on the land. A 250,000 acre parcel owned by the King Kamehameha School in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula was discussed as an example. The land was …

COVID-19: Coalition Offers Blueprint for Health, Safety and Economic Opportunity

… or assumed to be ongoing spending. Spend Some of Our State Reserves: … Therefore… Cut Non-Essential Spending Now: The Governor and Legislature … that more Michigan public schools are able to deploy it — whether … emergency-related shutdowns. School districts that take the lead …

Michigan Landscape: School Transportation

… the share of families with school-age children who lived within range of different types of schools. Researchers found that 93% … conventional district elementary school. By that same measure, 83% … close to a private elementary school, 72% to an elementary school … schools in Michigan on average spend about 4% of their operating …

Conclusion and Policy Recommendations

… dedicated to other purposes. Such spending is likely to provide the most bang … roads. First, the state already spends hundreds of millions of dollars on … Such as system could resemble how school facilities are funded. The state generally … provide loan assistance to improve the school districts’ credit rating and thus …

Challenges with Funding Michigan’s Roads

… Legislature has a large range of spending interests, and funding for … would be a radical shift in spending priorities. Graphic 26 below … fiscal year 2018.[†] Public schools and health and human services … Michigan’s budget.[‡] HHS spending has since increased from … significant amount of this spending results from programs receiving …

How Road Funding Works in Michigan

… revenue is dedicated to public schools and local governments.[30] … some flexibility in how they spend MTF dollars. With some exceptions, … constructing primary roads. They can spend another 15 percent of local … government officials have to spend on road maintenance declined … discourages drivers from spending on fuel, which reduces the …

How Michigan Legislators Voted on Taxpayer-Funded Business Subsidies

… quantify the dollar value of business subsidies authorized by each Michigan legislator since 2001. Researchers analyzed 71 public acts that authorized spending $16 billion on business subsidies from 2001 through 2017 to build the scorecard. Of these, 37 bills were able to be scored and the voting record …

Doing More With Less: The Charter School Advantage in Michigan

… research suggests impacts both a school’s funding levels and its average … background of students in a school as well as the race and gender composition of a school’s students. Three key findings … average, Michigan charter schools receive about $2,782, or 20 … investment for each dollar it spends — 36 percent higher than the …

Results of Regression Analysis

… constant.[*] On average, charter schools spend $2,611 less per student, … demographic differences. Charter schools are more cost effective and … investment. On average, the charter school advantage in CAP points for … children in Michigan charter schools provides a return on investment … them per year than students spending 13 years in TPS. We estimate …

Cost Effectiveness and ROI

… differences in per-pupil spending and standardized differences in CAP scores. Charter schools in almost all Michigan cities … cities have public charter schools outperforming TPS based on … take into account relative spending efforts. The graphic below … Graphic 7: Michigan Charter School Spending and Performance Compared …

Cost Effectiveness Analysis

… productivity of public charter schools and TPS, we follow the methodology … University of Arkansas charter school productivity study and first … effectiveness of public charter schools and TPS using the following … in TPS and public charter schools for each city multiplied by … calculating society’s return on the spending decisions made by the schools …

Executive Summary

… nation about public charter schools. Opponents of charter schools typically argue that these schools fail if their average standardized … traditional, district-run schools. These types of comparisons, … investment for each dollar it spends — 36 percent higher than the …

Conclusion

After Adding It All Up, Does Money Actually Matter?

… e complexity of Michigan’s school funding system, relying on … system that funds public schools in Michigan, but rather a … layered on top of each other. School funding in Michigan is a result … unifying strategy used to fund schools, although certain types of … how much their district was spending. The average Michigander …

Funding for Special Education

… Like many other elements of school finance, special education … programs. Altogether though, spending on these services comprise … of what Michigan taxpayers spend on public education. The state’s … account for special education spending among districts, and recommended … 13 percent of total public school enrollment — were classified …

Funding for Intermediate School Districts

… Michigan’s 56 intermediate school districts are an entrenched … back-office support for local school districts, deliver or finance … funded differently than local school districts and public charter schools. The primary difference is … Meanwhile, total ISD operational spending has increased over the same …

Categorical Grants

… how much funding Michigan schools receive on average, a reasonably … falls in that range. But schools receive a lot more money than … to local and intermediate school districts based on certain … state’s massively underfunded school employee pension system. Just … purpose. Since most of this spending is dedicated to “catching …

Recommendations for Reform

… significant doubts on whether spending on Pure Michigan is economically … purchases to justify this spending.[*] In other words, taxpayers shouldn’t have to spend another dime promoting the … return on investment study of spending on tourism promotion contain … in a local college, public schools, transportation infrastructure, …

The Academic Research on State-Funded Tourism Promotion

… correlation between larger state spending on tourism and the share … increases in state tourism spending “depends on the existing … suggesting that an increase in spending may have a net positive impact … significant relationship between spending on tourism promotion and … post-doctoral fellow in the School of Hospitality and Tourism …

Results

… provisions. The goal of corrections spending, for instance, is to administer justice. That spending has economic impacts nevertheless. Spending on economic development should … Century Jobs Fund, the goal of spending these hundreds of millions … unfunded liabilities in the school retirement system. The state …

Conclusion

… data set of building-level spending, achievement and student … correlation between how much schools in Michigan spend and how well their students … are to graduate from high school. The results suggest that … are distributed and the way spending is prescribed by overlapping …

Results

… correlation between a school’s spending levels and its students’ … seventh-grade math — the impact of spending more was very small. The model shows that a school would need to spend 10 percent more to improve … percent increase in per-pupil spending. As is customary when reporting …

Endnotes

… “Assessing the Effects of School Resources on Student Performance: … Persico, “The Effects of School Spending on Educational and Economic Outcomes: Evidence from School Finance Reforms,” The Quarterly … 4 Joydeep Roy, “Impact of School Finance Reform on Resource … https://perma.cc/V6R2-L4LM. 6 Eric A Hanushek, “Spending on Schools,” in A Primer …

Appendix: The Regression Model and Detailed Results

… regression equation using school-level panel data that varies by school and time: (Education Outcomes)sy= β0+β1 ln?(spending per pupil)sy +β2 (% free … average scale scores. If school spending were positively correlated … the amount of money that schools spend have little correlation …

Discussion

… how much individual public schools in Michigan spend and how well their students … the impact of additional spending was very small. This implies that simply spending more on public schools is … considering that when schools spend more, they can hire more …

The State of Student Achievement and School Funding in Michigan

… performance and education spending in Michigan over the last … explained by poverty or a few bad school systems: Michigan’s middle- … show Michigan’s per-pupil spending grew by 11 percent in real … taxpayers dedicate to public schools on a per-pupil basis and how … for this study analyzes the spending and achievement of individual …

Michigan’s Forthcoming School Funding Adequacy Study

… pioneered the “successful school district” approach, one of … estimates by asking panels of school district officials what resources … systemwide performance goals.[14] School funding adequacy studies are … method to assess Connecticut’s school finance system, which at the … demonstrated a wide variation in the spending levels of “successful school …

Data and Methods

… significant relationships between spending inputs and academic outputs … than 4,000 Michigan public schools. Spending Inputs Detailed information … Education. For each assigned school building code, yearly expenditures … aggregated building-level spending amount for each building …

Literature Review

… meaningful correlation between school spending and student outcomes. … that even large increases in spending are likely to translate into … on the relationship between school resources and student outcomes, … only for previously low-spending school districts and only for … gains for relatively low-spending schools and little or no gains …

Introduction

… and secondary education? Do school districts receive enough revenue … the common assumption that spending more on K-12 schools will … relationship between school spending and student achievement … relationship between school spending and student achievement. … relationship between school spending and student achievement. …

School Spending and Student Achievement in Michigan: What's the Relationship?

… and secondary education? Do school districts receive enough revenue … tax dollars to allocate to schools. But these concerns about the adequate level of school funding are based in part … the common assumption that spending more on K-12 schools will … relationship between school spending and student achievement …

Net Impact of Proposal 1

… Transportation Fund[*] $414,800,000 School Aid Fund $292,600,000 Earned Income … larger tax liability depends on their spending and income levels. According to the BLS, consumers in the lowest quintile spend 47 percent less annually than those … credits or above-average taxable spending, some EITC recipients may pay higher …

Allowable Uses of the School Aid Fund

… the allowable uses of the School Aid Fund. Currently, the constitution allows the SAF to support “school districts, higher education and school employees’ retirement systems[.]”[21] … constitutional prohibition against spending SAF revenue on public universities, … longer have the option of spending school aid revenue on public …

Introduction

… taxes, modify the allowed use of School Aid Fund revenues, and earmark a portion … income tax credit, increase public school funding and create new rules for the … Gov. Rick Snyder advocated for more spending on road repair and maintenance, originally … 1 would increase state taxes and spending by about $2 billion in its first …

Introduction

… contracting out for common public school services, only outsourcing … was good reason for this: school districts are prohibited from … must be covered by general school funds. When deficits occurred, school officials often looked for … addition to this rationale, spending pressures, created in large …

Conclusion

In this survey of school district contracts, it is apparent that implementation … passage of a law aiming to change school district collective bargaining does … compliant with health insurance spending reforms, there are plenty of instances … performance in Michigan’s public schools. If districts are continuing to use …

Implications for Policy Leaders

This survey suggests that simply expecting school districts to unilaterally change the way that they … work. Public Act 152, which limits the amount school districts can spend on employee health insurance, contains a specific …

Charter Conversion

… emergency include deficit spending for more than three consecutive … revenues. During the 2010-11 school year, according to the report, … recommended that the Highland Park School District be taken over by … another district or charter school for the remainder of the 2011-12 school year.[33] After procedural …

Financial Difficulties

… revenue. During the 2011-12 school year, Highland Park received … reductions in total district spending did not decrease proportionately. … overspending was the 2010-11 school year when the district spent … Highland Park one of the highest-spending districts in Michigan. The … attendance during the 2011-12 school year — only six of Michigan’s …

The Savings

… is redirected to local governments in the form of state aid payment to schools, appropriations to colleges and universities, and revenue-sharing payments … savings to accrue to taxpayers. If policymakers were to reduce overall spending, at both the local and state levels, in response to balancing public sector …

Insurance Benefits

… participate.[19] Most of the 186,000 FTE school district employees also tend … health insurance benefits.[20] School districts, charter public schools and other government educational … survey of Michigan conventional school districts, average teacher … sector employers in Michigan spend less on average providing health …

Implementing ‘Benefits in Balance’

… services to taxpayers, but the more governments spend on employment benefits, the fewer services they … Jason Richwine, for example, found that public school teachers — the most common government employee … salaries. In theory, since most local government and school district officials are free to offer and negotiate …

Benchmarking Public and Private Sector Benefits

… payments and services.[*] The public school retirement system — MPSERS — was used … include the unique time off offered to school employees. However, the cost of providing … averages, governments would need to spend $84 million more on compensation such … systems, such as retirement benefits for school employees. [†]  Using the state employee …

Introduction

… and the more governments can spend. But over the last decade, … state and local government spending in Michigan increased by … 1. Graphic 1: Government spending, inflation and private sector … Enrollment in K-12 public schools dropped about 6 percent.[6] … insurance. Total government spending still increased by 31 percent …

Executive Summary

… sector. The more government spends on these benefits, the less it can spend providing services to Michigan … Michigan governments averaged spending what the private sector does … Government employers in Michigan spend about $1.14 billion more providing … government officials — such as school boards and city councils — …

Comparing the Conditions and the Results

… lower-income students. Michigan schools could theoretically devote … performance is striking.[‡] If spending and socioeconomic factors … statistics on total expenditures, spending on teacher compensation and … later grades. Thus, data on spending and socioeconomic conditions for the K-12 school systems reflect the conditions …

Spending on Teachers

… shown in Graphic 3, average spending[*] on K-12 teachers and other … Michigan and Florida, 1990-2009 School Year Florida Michigan Percentage … bus supervision, and summer school teaching.” Benefits include … defined as a “professional school staff member who instructs … Elementary/Secondary Education: School Year 2009-10,” (U.S. Department …

Total Per-Pupil Public School Expenditures

… n’s total per-pupil public school expenditures were consistently … 1990 to 2009 (for simplicity, school years are labeled with the calendar year in which a school year ended).[*] Michigan and … by 1997, Michigan began to spend significantly more on average … Graphic 1: Total K-12 Public School Expenditures Per Pupil in …

Executive Summary*

… country’s lowest per-pupil spending increases. The contrast with … system. These included a new school accountability system, clear … considerable expansions in the schools that parents could choose … enrollment of students in private schools Eliminate geographical boundaries … choose from a variety of public school options, including online …

Introduction

Michigan’s School Aid fund increased once more this year, but many school administrators in the state … effective measures to reduce spending due to increased pension … Over 60 percent of Michigan school districts have now contracted … of the state’s 549 public school districts, or 61 percent, …

Conclusion

… repay the borrowing or fails to address core spending issues. The state can mandate and provide fiscal … management. But if all these fail to address spending problems and revenue gaps, then the state government … annually in Flint, Pontiac and the Detroit Public Schools. These expanded powers and clarifications strengthen …

Introduction

… reject the Local Government and School District Fiscal Accountability … for local governments and school districts that approach “a … local government or local school district. In 1988, with the … allowed similar appointments for school districts. If Public Act 4 … take control of revenue and spending; to terminate, modify and …

The Record of Some States With Supermajority Tax Limitations

… reducing state tax burdens and spending, some states with tax limitations … subsequent constraint on state spending growth in Proposition 4 of … Referring to a 2005 state tax and spending proposal, the authors remarked, … that such stricter [tax and spending] strategies may spawn additional … (e.g., [a 1988 proposition on schools]), earmark funding sources …

The Ability of the Government to Reform the Tax System

… to set priorities and cut spending from the state budget[*] … in the financing of public schools.[55] These changes were significant, … In addition to the state spending-cut suggestions mentioned … identified numerous other possible spending reductions. See, for instance, … 24, 2012). Other possible spending cuts can be found in Jack …

Introduction

… enshrined in the state constitution as part of a 1994 school finance ballot proposal known as “Proposal A.”[3] … Bill of Rights,” the amendment prevented state spending and revenue from growing faster than the sum … increases producing revenue that do not exceed the spending limit must be approved by two-thirds legislative …

Michigan’s Public-Sector Employment Costs

… for most state and public school employees alone officially … the state’s largest public school employee union, has pressured school districts into buying health insurance for school employees through the Michigan … direct control over an area of spending that may have the largest …

Executive Summary*

… meant to control government spending. State labor law has permitted … agreements. Included are: Public school management provisions: – protecting … ineffective teachers; – freeing school boards to allow interdistrict … meant to control government spending. As a result, the proposal … employee pension contribution and school district contracting for noninstructional …

Introduction

Michigan school districts face tough choices  allocating their … education. Despite increased spending in Michigan schools, school boards regularly have to find … positions and other moves that few school board members enjoy. However, …

Michigan School Privatization Survey 2011

Majority of Michigan school districts currently contract food, … services Despite increased spending in Michigan public schools, districts regularly face … that over half of public schools have privatized at least one … improving services while spending less.

Food Services

… their food services, and this spending is included in the food services expenditure category.[*] School districts typically budget … operating expenditures (including spending on support services), because … expenditures. Graphic 27: School District Food Services Expenditures … ($429), with the suburban group spending the least ($337). All four …

All Support Services

… category is a subtotal of the spending on student support, instructional … support, general administration, school administration, operations … category does not include spending on instruction and food services. Locale groups’ spending on all support services follows … a percent of total operational spending (see Graphic 26). This group …

Other Support Services

… second-highest level of such spending (see Graphic 23). The rural … produced the largest per-pupil spending increase on other support … locale groups also increased spending in this area over this period … and DPS increased per-pupil spending on other support services … services.[*] Graphic 23: School District Other Support Services …

Student Transportation

… transporting students to and from school. Compensation for supervisors, … also include subsidies that schools pay to parents to transport children to and from school.[30] In 2010, as Graphic 21 … Per-pupil transportation spending was somewhat lower in both … increased this per-pupil spending by the largest amount from …

Operations and Maintenance

… $909 per pupil. Per-pupil spending in each of the four major … (9 percent). Graphic 19: School District Operations and Maintenance … operations and maintenance spending, followed by the midsize … on average cut per-pupil spending on operations and maintenance … Operations and maintenance spending as a percent of operating …

School Administration

School administration expenditures include compensation for school principals, principals’ staff, … academic department chairpersons. School administrators manage the operations of individual schools, as compared to general administrators, … in school administration spending than in student support services, …

General Administration

This category includes spending for district-level management, … federal relations services. Spending on legal services, union … per-pupil general administration spending grew for the town (9 percent) … pupil in 2010. Graphic 15: School District General Administration … subgroup reduced per-pupil spending on general administration …

Instructional Staff Support Services

… instructional staff support services spending differs significantly by … 2010), and it also increased spending more quickly (51 percent) … subgroups cut their per-pupil spending on instructional staff support … subgroup.[*] Graphic 13: School District Instructional Staff … 132 percent.[†] Graphic 14: School District Instructional Staff …

Student Support Services

… services. These would include spending for directly hiring or purchasing … health.”[23] Unlike per-pupil spending on instruction, which was … locale groups, per-pupil spending on student support services … respectively.[*] Graphic 11: School District Student Support Services … student support services spending as a percent of overall operational …

Instruction

… operating budget, and since city school districts had the highest … Graphic 9). In fact, city school districts had the highest average spending for many of the 10 spending categories discussed in this study. Instructional spending per pupil grew by at least …

Total Operating Expenditures

… daily activity. They include spending on personnel, materials, … energy. It should be noted that spending on personnel involves all … Thus, in 2010, Michigan city school districts’ average per-pupil … 2004 to 2010. Graphic 8: School District Operating Expenditures … Financial Survey (NPEFS), School Year 2007-08 (Fiscal Year …

Conclusion and General Observations on the Data

… of the finances of Michigan school districts based on locale … question of whether urban school districts’ revenues and expenditures … districts and districts that spend less per pupil are more likely … to general administration, school administration, operations … unlike other operational spending categories, per-pupil instruction …

School Operating Expenditures in Michigan by Type and Locale

… spent operating local public schools and local education agencies, … such expenses as salaries for school personnel, student transportation, school books and materials, and energy … capital outlay, interest on school debt, payments to private … revenues, per-pupil operational spending in each of these categories …

School District Revenue in Michigan by Source and Locale

… attendance figures. Total school district revenues per pupil … various forms of capital spending — the construction and refurbishing of school buildings, the development … below are those received by schools from the sale of bonds.[*] … available from the sale of school property or compensation for …

A Profile of Public School Locales Nationwide

… aggregated data on public school attendance and expenditures … the 2008-2009 and 2007-2008 school years, respectively.[*] Nationally, … students in the 2008-2009 school year attended a public school located in a city or suburb. … the city school districts spending 12 percent more on average …

Definitions and Notes on the Data

… raw NPEFS data on Michigan school districts from the Michigan … allocate federal funds to local school districts for a number of … States.”[5] To categorize school districts by location, the … adapted this approach for schools and school districts and applied … services. The ISDs’ revenues, spending and activities are therefore …

Introduction

… common complaint about public school funding is that large financial gaps exist between school districts. These charges are … the majority of America’s school revenues came from local property … urban, rural and suburban school districts was most notably … compares the revenue streams and spending patterns of urban, suburban, …

Executive Summary

… challenges for many public schools, particularly those in lower-income … urban, suburban, town and rural school districts. The study groups Michigan school districts using locale codes applied to public schools by the National Center for … percent of their operational spending to instruction, respectively. …

Revenues and Spending of Michigan's Urban, Suburban, Town and Rural School Districts

… inequities create challenges for many public schools, particularly those in lower-income urban areas. … of Michigan’s urban, suburban, town and rural school districts. The study’s findings provide a new and unique perspective on Michigan’s school districts.

Coping With PERA: The Oakland County Model

… has a minimal effect on taxing, spending and basic government operations. … collective bargaining — tax rates and spending needs are determined outside of collective … For instance, few communities or school districts have managed to avoid awarding … bargaining and contracts dictating spending, it would appear that few local governments …

Endnotes

… Van Beek, “Michigan Public School Health Insurance Costs Soar … 2010). See also Frank Webster, “School Boards Empowered to Save Insurance … Quality Primer for Michigan School Officials, State Policymakers, … 2011). 9  Paul Kersey, “Union Spending in Michigan: A Review of … Dustin Anderson, “Michigan Schools Contract Out More Than Ever” …

Top 10 Budget Recommendations

… government, $2.45 billion in public schools, $844 million in colleges … www.mackinac.org/10839 Charter schools spend $2,200 less per student per year than conventional schools. If all Michigan public schools operated at this lower per-pupil … reform ideas: 1 Place new school employees into a defined-contribution, …

Lift Caps on Virtual Charter Schools

… enroll in virtual charter schools. The current law that limits … number of virtual charters schools to two and enrollment to 2,000 … Lawmakers should eliminate the two-school, 2,000-student caps on the … enrollment in, virtual charter schools. Michigan would not be alone … Michigan’s charter schools already spend about 25 percent less than …

Recent Cost Estimates

… research suggests that virtual schools can be more cost-effective … costs for state-run virtual schools and conventional brick-and-mortal schools, predicted, “Economies of … in funding state virtual schools over time.”[18] Bill Tucker … brick-and-mortar schools. Instead of spending resources on buildings, physical …

Executive Summary

… involve using computers at school; it involves a new method … urban, rural and suburban school districts. In fact, Michigan … further benefit Michigan public school students. While there’s not … virtual learning in K-12 schools, several studies suggest that … conventional districts, while Ohio spends about $5,700 per pupil each …

#7 The Class Size Myth

… of $725 more per pupil to schools that reduced class sizes to … evidence that all the extra spending raised student achievement.[57] … the ratio of students to all school employees fell by 12 percent … period, and now there’s one school employee for every 7.8 students.[59] … facts don’t prevent the public school establishment from continuing …

#5 The Unequal Funding Myth

… embedded within Michigan’s public school system frequently call for … accomplishments — of the 1994 Proposal A school finance reform. While achieving … than most imagine, today the spending differences between schools is smaller than ever before. … A, 80 percent of Michigan school operating funds came from …

#4 The Unstable Funding Myth

… seeking more money for public schools frequently claim that the … so, but the reality is that school revenues have proven remarkably … this; over the past century, school funding nationwide has advanced … factor in recent decades is school employee unions, which have … campaign contributors and spends more on lobbying than any …

#3 The Underfunded Myth

… claim by Michigan’s public school establishment and its political allies is that, despite spending $20 billion annually on education, our schools are “underfunded.”[22] Comparisons … known “price” for a public school education that taxpayers are … amounts actually spent on schools and the knowledge that they …

#1 The School Foundation Allowance Myth

… laws directing the state’s school funding mechanism can be complex … per student in the 2009-2010 school year), which many incorrectly … districts. Second, because each school district uses the number generated … amount per student that each school will have to spend for the year. In reality, …

Endnotes

1  Paul Kersey, "Union Spending in Michigan: A Review of Union … 2009). 5  "Pennsylvania School Spending" (Commonwealth Foundation … Fault Single Health Plan for Schools," Detroit Free Press, August … Paul Kersey, "MESSA: Keeping School Districts from Saving Money … Database." 28  Kersey, "Union Spending in Michigan: A Review of …

The Consequences for Government Spending

… similar effect on local governments, including school districts, the potential savings in employee wages … the Michigan Education Association has pressured school districts to provide teachers and staff with insurance … of PERA would, among other things, ensure that school districts were free to utilize a wider range of …

The Consequences for Democratic Self-Government

… free to follow their own spending priorities and implement … swaths of a local government or school board's budget, especially … 45.6 percent of operations spending, meaning that close to half … percent of the cost of running a school district in Pennsylvania, … between the Detroit Public Schools and the Detroit Federation …

The Consequences of Applying Private-Sector Labor Policy to Government

… filed, though the rules vary a bit for public school employees. There is one important divergence … tremendous waste, with less than half of union spending going toward worker representation. Union spending is misdirected into political activism and inflated …