The MC: The Mackinac Center Blog

Gov. Snyder Vetoes Bill Limiting Consumer Auto Parts Choices

HB 4344 would have increased red tape for consumers and businesses

When the Michigan Legislature passes a bill by wide margins, it is usually signed into law, regardless of how good the actual policy is. But a bill that would have discriminated against certain auto parts and added red tape for consumers and businesses was recently vetoed by Gov. Snyder.

As we previously wrote:

Right now, if a Michigan citizen goes to get a car repaired, it is fairly simple for the owner of the vehicle and a mechanic to decide what kind of parts to use to provide the fix. Unless a bill that has passed the Michigan Legislature is vetoed by Gov. Snyder, that process is about to get a lot more complicated.

There are two main types of auto parts: Those made by original equipment manufacturers (OEM) or those made by other companies (aftermarket). By and large, insurance companies, crash tests and research findings do not find a safety difference between the two — but OEM parts are usually significantly more expensive.

Gov. Snyder took heed, vetoing House Bill 4344 with good reason. As Mlive noted:

Groups including the free market think tank The Mackinac Center had been critical of the bill's limitation on aftermarket parts. Jarrett Skorup, policy analyst with the Mackinac Center, said many studies have shown aftermarket parts to be just as safe and often less expensive. "Consumers should have that choice in deciding which auto parts they want to use," Skorup said.

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The governor noted in his veto letter that while the bill had some good components, the law would have limited aftermarket parts that have no effect on consumer health and safety. He wrote, “Michigan's aftermarket auto parts industry is strong because of its competition with OEMs. Indeed, by ensuring robust and open competition between OEM parts and aftermarket parts, consumers see the benefits of safety improvements stemming from that competition. Enacting a law to prohibit mechanics from providing high quality and safe alternatives for customers is an inappropriate impediment on the competition that has resulted in both high quality OEM and aftermarket parts for Michigan drivers to enjoy.”

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State Government Up to Its Eyeballs in Pension Debt

Unfunded pension liabilities dwarf state’s other borrowing

Unlike Washington D.C., Michigan’s state government is constitutionally prohibited from spending more than it takes in each year and borrowing to make up the difference. Yet state taxpayers are still liable for large amounts of state debt, for purposes both practical and problematic.

The debts of greatest concern to residents are general obligation bonds, backed by general taxpayer dollars. Payments come right out of the annual general fund tax revenue the state uses to support the rest of what it does.

Michigan’s recently passed budget includes $137 million to make payments on this debt, paid from state’s general fund (largely composed of money from the state income tax).

There is other debt that gets paid by taxpayer dollars without being general obligation debt. Some $3.1 billion borrowed to build or improve state offices and college buildings is also of concern because it will take another $247 million from the new budget — more money that won’t be available for other uses.

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But other portions of the state’s $26.6 billion official debt are less of a concern to taxpayers. The Michigan State Housing Development Authority, for instance, borrowed $2.0 billion and then lent it in turn to housing developers. Taxpayers will not be liable as long as developers make their payments.

That level of debt is worrisome, but it is the semi-off-the-books debt that poses the major threat to taxpayers, not only in Michigan but all around the country — and pensions are exhibit No. 1.

Michigan state and local governments have promised their employees far more in pension benefits than can be supported by the amount set aside for that purpose. There may be no official mortgage or bond offering for this debt, but every taxpayer is on the hook for it nonetheless.

The state-run school pension system is largest pension system in Michigan. Lawmakers have promised teachers and school employees $67.7 billion in pension benefits, but set aside and invested only enough to cover $41.0 billion. Taxpayers carry the burden for the $26.7 billion difference, and it is a heavy lift: $2 billion of the amount paid in state and local school taxes goes to fill this hole.

And even these numbers are less firm than they appear. The underfunding came about two ways. As auditors have noted, state officials and lawmakers made overly optimistic assumptions about future returns from pension fund investments and payroll gains. The actual debt owed to retirees in this system may actually be higher than $26.7 billion.

And then, even after basing annual pension contribution amounts on imprudent predictions, officials still haven’t made full payments.

Moreover, the pension figures ignore billions of quasi-liabilities represented by health insurance benefits that have been promised to school and government retirees. Unlike its treatment of pensions, Michigan’s constitution does not prohibit trimming those insurance benefits, or even eliminating them altogether.

Because the pension underfunding has gone on for decades, more money is owed to government employees and retirees than any other class of creditor. That is a bad situation for those workers and for taxpayers alike. To prevent the problem from getting worse, governments should stop providing pension benefits that can and have been underfunded and instead offer employees defined contribution benefits.

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June 17, 2016 MichiganVotes Weekly Roll Call Report

Votes from the last week of the spring legislative session

House Bill 5641, Authorize PPOs to let protected individual keep phone number: Passed 37 to 0 in the Senate

To allow an individual under a personal protection order to get control of a cell phone number from the person against whom the protection order is required. Courts would be authorized to order the phone company to make it so.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”

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Senate Bill 289, Authorize sanctions for bad faith patent infringement claim: Passed 37 to 0 in the Senate

To authorize damage awards for the target of a patent infringement claim that is made in bad faith. Actual damages plus exemplary damages of triple the actual loss would be authorized, plus costs. If the target demonstrates a “reasonable likelihood” that the claim is made in bad faith then the court could order the claim seeker to post a bond equal to the target’s likely legal expenses.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 5442, Authorize Amber Alert type system for “active shooter”: Passed 37 to 0 in the Senate

To require the State Police to establish procedures for rapidly disseminating useful information to radio and television stations, and text messages to cell phones, regarding a "clear, present, persistent, ongoing, and random threat to public safety."

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


Senate Bill 291, Authorize wrongful imprisonment compensation: Passed 37 to 0 in the Senate

To authorize payment by the state of civil damages to a person wrongfully imprisoned for a crime he or she did not commit. The damages would be $50,000 for each year of wrongful imprisonment, plus reasonable attorney fees.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 5484, Authorize wearing “hunter pink” for safety in field: Passed 78 to 30 in the House

To revise the law that requires hunters in the field to wear some high-visibility “hunters orange” apparel for safety purposes. The bill would also permit “hunters pink” as an alternative, and possibly other colors, but only if the state Natural Resources Commission determined a color is effective at enhancing safety.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 5215, Criminalize removing collar from someone else's hunting dog: Passed 79 to 29 in the House

To make it a crime to remove the collar from a dog owned by someone else that is being used for hunting, punishable by up to 90 days in jail and a $2,500 fine.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 5457, Repeal auto insurance company tax credit: Passed 78 to 30 in the House

To repeal a controversial tax credit that auto insurance companies can collect based on required costs they incur for uninsured injuries and high risk drivers. Reportedly the companies are collecting $80 million annually for the credit, which they claim would be tacked on to insurance bills if it is repealed.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 5613, Limit state department rulemaking authority: Passed 61 to 47 in the House

To prohibit a state department from promulgating rules more stringent than required by federal standards, unless specifically required by state statute unless specifically required by state statute or the department director determines there is a "clear and convincing need" to do so.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


Senate Bill 207, Authorize roadside driving while drugged saliva test: Passed 69 to 39 in the House

To authorize police with specialized training to require a driver suspected of driving drugged to take a saliva test, make a warrantless arrest if the test is positive, make it a civil infraction to refuse a saliva test, and order a commercial driver out of service for testing positive or refusing to take the test.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 5619, Require schools to consider “restorative justice” discipline measures: Passed 108 to 0 in the House

To require school officials to consider using “restorative justice” measures in certain disciplinary situations, including victim-offender conferences initiated by the victim and subject to various restrictions and procedural requirements. This is part of a package that scales back a "zero tolerance" regime mandating expulsion for certain behaviors.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


Senate Bill 673, Extend tax breaks for local developers program: Passed 94 to 14 in the House

To extend through 2026 the authority of local governments to grant "Obsolete Property Rehabilitation" property tax breaks to particular developers they select. Under current law this expires at the end of 2016.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


SOURCE: MichiganVotes.org, a free, non-partisan website created by the Mackinac Center for Public Policy, providing concise, non-partisan, plain-English descriptions of every bill and vote in the Michigan House and Senate. Please visit http://www.MichiganVotes.org.

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Taxpayers Spend Millions A Year on Union Activities

Op-ed in The Detroit News addresses union release time

Michigan taxpayers are spending approximately $3 million a year to allow union officials time to work on union business rather than teach students.

Mackinac Center for Public Policy’s Jarrett Skorup wrote about the privilege known as union release time in a recent op-ed published in The Detroit News. Taxpayers are on the hook not only for the often six-figure salaries of these union employees, but also for the replacement teachers who must be paid to take their place in the classroom.

Skorup says even districts in financial trouble are diverting money from the classroom to fund union work.

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The Taylor school district, which has run deficits year after year, spends well over $100,000 for four union officials’ release time. The president and vice president of both the teachers union and other administrative staff work part-time for the district and part-time for their unions.…

And Detroit Public Schools may be the worst offender. According to documents obtained via a Freedom of Information Act request, the district has seven union officials doing “other professional business” — hired by the district to work for schools, but instead spending their time on union business. Why is a bankrupt district spending money in this manner?

Senate Bill 280, introduced by Sen. Marty Knollenberg, would put an end to union release time, but it has been sitting in the State House since November. Skorup said Michiganders’ taxes should be spent in the classroom and that, if unions wish to lobby, they should pay their own expenses.

Read the full op-ed in The Detroit News.

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June 10, 2016 MichiganVotes Weekly Roll Call Report

Detroit School bailout “final answer,” require warrant for electonic data search, much more

The Legislature has adjourned for a summer recess. Due to the number of bills considered in the final week, some votes will be reported next week's Roll Call Report.

House Bill 5383, Detroit Public Schools bailout: Passed 20 to 17 in the Senate

To concur with the House-passed version of the Detroit school district bailout bill (see description at bottom of this report), with two minor clarifications. The bill does not contain provisions previously passed by the Senate that would give a mayoral commission the power to ration charter schools in Detroit.

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Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 5387, Give force to illegal teacher strike sanctions: Passed 23 to 14 in the Senate

To authorize more rigorous sanctions and more certain procedures for public school teachers who participate in an illegal strike. The bill was opposed by all but one Democrat (Johnson) and Republican Senators Casperson, Hansen, Horn, Rocca, and Schmidt.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 5457, Repeal auto insurance company tax credit: Passed 29 to 7 in the Senate

To repeal a controversial tax credit auto insurance companies can collect based on payments into an “insurance placement facility” or high risk pool for individuals, and other expenses. Reportedly the companies are collecting $80 million annually for the credit, which they claim would otherwise be tacked on to customer bills.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 5457, Repeal auto insurance company tax credit: Passed 80 to 28 in the House

The House vote on the bill described above.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 5578, Clarify "big box" store property taxation: Passed 97 to 11 in the House

To require property tax assessors to assess “big box” stores based more on "highest and best use" factors rather than a lower value based on claims that the property would not be easily filled if vacant. This refers to whether these large structures are uniquely less valuable if vacant than other commercial properties that are supposedly easier to use for other purposes.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 5577, Impose licensure mandate on “mobility vehicle” dealers: Passed 96 to 12 in the House

To impose a new licensure and training mandate and associated regulations on prospective dealers (but not incumbent dealers) of vehicles modified for use by disabled individuals (“mobility vehicles”).

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 5642, Authorize PPOs to let protected individual keep cell phone number: Passed 107 to 1 in the House

To allow an individual protected under a personal protection order to keep a cell phone number for which they are not the actual customer. The bill authorizes courts to order the phone company to make it so.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 4388, Authorize 3-mill "sinking fund" tax for school security and computers: Passed 107 to 1 in the House

To allow school districts to impose a 3 mill property tax for 10 years for a “sinking fund” that can be used to buy computer equipment, software and security equipment. Under current law schools can levy up to 5 mills for 20 years for a much narrower range of uses.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 5613, Limit state department rulemaking authority: Passed 61 to 47 in the House

To prohibit a state department from promulgating rules more stringent than required by federal standards, unless specifically required to by state statute, or the department director determines there is a "clear and convincing need" to do so.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Joint Resolution N, Protect electronic data from unreasonable search and seizure: Passed 107 to 1

To place on the November ballot a state constitutional amendment adding a requirement that government get a warrant to “access a person's electronic data and electronic communication.” This would be added to the Article I provision that recognizes the right of the people to be secure from unreasonable government searches and seizures of their “person, houses, papers, and possessions.”

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


House Bill 5384, House's second Detroit school bailout version: Passed 55 to 53 in the House

To give the insolvent Detroit school district $467 million to pay off debt, and another $150 million for unspecified "transition costs," and hand over control from state receivership to an elected school board, subject to oversight from a state board created as part of the city's 2014 bankruptcy and state bailout. Some of these provisions are in other bills in a final legislative package that does not contain a controversial mayoral commission with the power to ration charter schools in the city.

Who Voted “Yes” and Who Voted “No”


SOURCE: MichiganVotes.org, a free, non-partisan website created by the Mackinac Center for Public Policy, providing concise, non-partisan, plain-English descriptions of every bill and vote in the Michigan House and Senate. Please visit http://www.MichiganVotes.org.

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Uber May Be Opening Door for 21st Century Unionization

Vernuccio op-ed published in Huffington Post

First, Uber transformed the way people think about transportation; now it may be doing the same to unions.

In an op-ed published by The Huffington Post, Mackinac Center for Public Policy’s Director of Labor Policy F. Vincent Vernuccio explains Uber is working to create a model that could pull the antiquated union model into the 21st Century. In May, Uber and the International Association of Machinists District 15 announced the formation of the Independent Drivers Guild for New York City drivers to allow members meetings with management, create an appeals process for disciplinary action and offer benefit programs.

What makes the Guild interesting is, although organized by a large labor union, it won’t look much like a typical union. The New York Times reported that the Guild, “would establish a forum for regular dialogue and afford [workers] some limited benefits and protections — but that would stop short of unionization. …

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Even though Guild members will meet with Uber, they will not be able to force Uber to bargain over contracts as a traditional union would. Further, no Uber driver will be required to pay dues to the Guild, as they otherwise would in a traditional union in New York. Uber drivers could still work directly with the company and would not need to go through the Guild if they wanted to negotiate with management or appeal a grievance on their own.

Vernuccio explained the guild is good in that it only provides services to workers who want them. However, he notes the Uber-IAM deal could open the door to forced unionism of drivers.

Nevertheless, the IAM and Uber coming to a voluntary agreement to provide optional benefits for drivers suggests the potential start of a positive transition for the labor movement. The voluntary agreement shows that unions no longer need to compel employers and employees into accepting forced representation and paying forced dues in order to support themselves.

Read the full op-ed at The Huffington Post.

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Time for The MEA To Recognize Right-To-Work

Media covers new Mackinac Center lawsuit

Four years after Michigan passed right-to-work, it’s time for the Michigan Education Association to allow teachers to exercise their freedom.

That is one of the reasons the Mackinac Center Legal Foundation is representing an Ann Arbor science teacher in his suit against the Michigan Education Association and its local the Ann Arbor Education Association, which is illegally preventing him from exercising his right not to belong to the union. MLive wrote about the case this week, explaining plaintiff Ronald Robinson is being billed for fees to a union he does not wish to be part of.

Robinson's charge centers on Michigan's right-to-work law and when the Ann Arbor Education Association entered into its most recent master agreement with Ann Arbor Public Schools.

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Michigan's right-to-work law went into effect in March 2013, saying contracts between employers and bargaining units cannot require employees to be union members or pay agency fees. Existing contracts did not have to immediately comply with the new law, but any new contracts negotiated since the law went into effect need to allow employees the option to opt out of union membership and agency fees.

Mackinac Center Senior Attorney Derk Wilcox explained that revisions to the collective bargaining agreement made in 2014 and 2015 triggered right-to-work and the MEA and Ann Arbor Education Association are forcing Robinson and other teachers to pay fees.

“A union cannot change almost everything in a contract and claim the agreement is not a new one that is exempt from right-to-work,” Wilcox said in a news release.

Robinson told Local 4 News in Detroit that he notified the union of his desire to leave because he didn’t feel it represents him well.

“I would like to see them do well, I really would,” Robinson said. “But at the same time, I would like them to be accountable for all of the voices, not just a chosen few.”

Read the full article by MLive here.

Watch Local 4’s coverage here.

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New Study Shows Positive Effects of Ridesharing

Introduction of Uber decreases crash rates and DUIs

Uber has long suggested that the introduction of its service correlates with a decrease in drunk driving arrests. In Seattle, for example, DUI arrests dropped by 10 percent after Uber launched. But the company acknowledged that a more detailed analysis would be necessary to show causation.

That analysis has arrived in the form of a recently published paper by Angela Dills of Providence College and Sean Mulholland of Stonehill College, who conducted a broad study of Uber in over 150 cities. “Ride-Sharing, Fatal Crashes, and Crime” addresses not just incidences of drunk driving, but also crash rates and certain other types of crime.

The study found that fatal crash rates were reduced by six percent on average after the introduction of Uber in a city. Nighttime fatal crashes also dropped by 18 percent. Overall, the authors find that for each year Uber is operational in a city, auto fatalities decline by 16.6 percent.

The decline in fatal crash rates alone presents a compelling argument for expanding ridesharing services to a broader audience, but the drunk driving statistics are even more impressive:

[W]e find a large and robust decline in the arrest rate for DUIs. Depending upon specification, DUIs are 15 to 62 percent lower after the entry of Uber. The average annual rate of decline after the introduction of Uber is 51.3 percent per year for DUIs.

These numbers back up the anecdotal evidence Uber drivers have told through their stories. This new evidence suggests that allowing ridesharing to grow and expand in Michigan wouldn’t just benefit drivers and passengers, it would benefit everyone else on the road by cutting back on fatal traffic accidents, drunk driving and other related crimes.

The Michigan Legislature is currently considering a package of bills that would create a statewide regulatory framework for ridesharing and allow more Michiganders to drive for the likes of Uber and Lyft. Ridesharing is great for the Michigan economy, but this new research suggests that passing those bills would improve the safety of the state’s roads, as well.

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For more information, read the full study or visit mackinac.org/ridesharing.

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Related Articles:

The Many Benefits of Ridesharing

Ridesharing Drivers Tell Their Stories

Ann Arbor Crackdown Illustrates Need for Statewide Ridesharing Framework

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Can I Catch a Ride?: Regulating Uber and Lyft in Michigan

House Refuses to Ration School Choice for Detroit Parents, Children

Let parents, not a new bureaucracy, choose schools

The Michigan House narrowly passed a revised plan to aid the financially distressed and academically disastrous Detroit Public Schools, agreeing to send much more money to the reconstituted school district but drawing the line to defend parental choice. Former Gov. John Engler weighing in against a “morally wrong” Detroit Education Commission proposal may have helped make the difference.

The House significantly closed the gap between its initial DPS bailout offer of $500 million and the Senate’s more generous $715 million, settling on a total of $617 million. More importantly, though, Speaker Kevin Cotter and 54 other House members withstood the pressure to limit charter schools in Detroit. They saw through a plan that would have constrained educational choice, a scheme focused on protecting a school district plagued by financial scandal and bearing the nation’s worst academic record.

Instead of a seven-member commission, appointed by the mayor of Detroit and having a veto power over opening new charter schools, the new House plan establishes an advisory council with the task of providing annual recommendations on school facilities and locations in the city. As approved, the council would consist of the new DPS superintendent and school board president, as well as four additional members appointed by the state’s School Reform Office: a DPS parent, a charter parent, a charter administrator or board member, and a representative of charter authorizers.

There have been some strong reactions to the House’s approval of the new plan. MIRS News Service reports that Rep. Adam Zemke, D-Ann Arbor, described it as a “handout to criminals.” Detroit Free Press editor Stephen Henderson wished a drastic fate on supportive lawmakers: “sew them into burlap sacks with rabid animals, and toss them into the Straits of Mackinac,” he wrote.

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Such responses are as misguided as they are inappropriate. The Detroit Education Commission would not solve DPS’ deep-seated woes. But for many students, it would limit future avenues of opportunity.

Though no proposal is perfect, the House compromise package mostly fulfills five principles of a sound legislative solution for DPS. If the Senate joins the House in approving this no-DEC compromise, that makes it a worthy cause for celebration. But it also leads directly to a call for action.

As a whole, Detroit charter schools have achieved better results than district schools. But students need more quality seats their families can access. And parents need information that will enable them to make the best decisions, along with capable school leaders who are primarily accountable to them, rather than to bureaucrats or politicians. These will require new options, and new partnerships.

The House majority merits kudos for standing tall on principle — parents, not bureaucrats, are better at choosing schools that work for their kids. In fighting hard to ensure no harm is done, it also has preserved the conditions that best allow for future success. It’s time to stop fretting over saving a failed institution, and time to start creating and pursuing more hopeful opportunities.

Note: Since the initial publication of this article, both chambers of the Michigan Legislature agreed on a bailout package that does not create a Detroit Education Commission.

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Related Articles:

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Cut Corporate Welfare to Help Balance State Budget

Tenuous relationship between corporate welfare and economic health

Michigan will collect more taxes next year, but not as much as predicted a few months ago, leaving members of the Legislature looking at a sizable gap between what they want to spend and the money available to pay for it. The most constructive and efficient way to balance the budget is to eliminate the state’s corporate welfare programs and supporting bureaucracy.

The budget the Legislature enacted for fiscal year 2016 included almost $178 million in six major items over which the Michigan Economic Development Corporation controls. Cutting this would not only help balance the budget, but could improve Michigan’s economy. Lawmakers may also be able to redirect an additional $39 million from Indian gaming monies that currently flow directly to the state’s corporate-welfare bureaucracy.

The MEDC takes money from many people and businesses and gives it to a few. The logic that government can create more jobs than would otherwise exist is wrong according to both experience and empirical evidence.

One of the reasons cited publicly for the budget shortfall is the need to pay out on an old, targeted business subsidy program called “Michigan Economic Growth Authority.” Five scholarly analyses of MEGA have been performed since 2005, and three of them found the program had, at best, no impact on job creation and at worst, a negative one. A fourth found a positive but tiny impact.

The fifth study, published in 2014, reports, “There are no relationships between the use of MEGA and economic health.” The author, Michigan State University scholar Laura Reese, looked at more state programs than MEGA and concluded, “The wisest course of action for most cities would be to eschew particularized development incentives, especially those that require tax incentives.”

The state’s auditor general found that Michigan’s 21st Century Jobs Fund program could only show that roughly 19 percent of the jobs promised actually materialized. That doesn’t take into account the costs of running the program.

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The Michigan film incentive program paid out more than $500 million in taxpayer money before it was canceled in 2015. Even one of the MEDC’s own paid consultants found that the program cost the state treasury more money than it generated.

The Mackinac Center recently discovered the same to be true of the state’s tourism promotion efforts, such as the Pure Michigan campaign. The Center looked at efforts of 48 states to promote tourism over nearly 40 years and found a negative result. For every $1 million increase spending, hotels and motels saw an additional $20,000 in extra economic activity. Eliminating this program alone would save the state $34 million in fiscal 2017 alone.

There is more evidence that programs like these don’t work, in Michigan and nationally. Economists Peter Fisher and Alan Peters conducted a literature review, looking at the work other scholars had done. In their paper, “The Failures of Economic Development Incentives,” they concluded the tens of billions dedicated nationwide each year to incentive programs are probably ineffective.

Worse, the MEDC may actually harm economic growth. A study published in the Cato Journal argues that states that encourage “rent seeking” may stunt their real rate of economic growth considerably. In rent seeking, private parties, like businesses, go to the government in search of favors, like subsidies. The MEDC hands out such favors.

The state needs to scale back its plans for spending. It should start with eliminating corporate welfare spending.

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Related Articles:

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Michigan House Wise to Shift Corporate Welfare Spending to Roads

Will Republicans Backtrack on Corporate Welfare Cuts?

Detroit News Exposes MEDC Secrecy

In 20 Years, Only Two Corporate Welfare Recipients Created 1,000+ Jobs