1 “Public Act 349” (State of Michigan, Dec. 11, 2012), http://goo.gl/ r7AJjx (accessed July 23, 2014).

2 “Public Act 349” (State of Michigan, Dec. 11, 2012), http://goo.gl/ r7AJjx (accessed July 23, 2014); “Michigan Right-to-Work Legislation” (Thrun Law Firm, 2012), http://goo.gl/bPWWCe (accessed July 23, 2014).

3 “History of MEA” (Michigan Education Association, Jun. 13, 2011), http://goo.gl/FrjZhl (accessed Jul. 8, 2014); Steve Cook, “Message from President Steve Cook on Impacts of Right-to-Work — and How We’re Fighting Back” (Michigan Education Association, Jan. 23, 2013), http://goo.gl/WTrfPu (accessed Jul. 8, 2014).

4 Author’s calculations based on Audrey Spalding, “Roadblocks to Reform?: A Review of Union Contracts in Michigan Schools” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2014), 4, 20, http://goo.gl/drb7I1 (accessed July 28, 2014).

5 Michael Van Beek, “Merit Pay Survey Results” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Oct. 15, 2012), http://goo.gl/ZNGqCU (accessed July 28, 2014).

6 MCL § 388.1618(2).

7 “Public Act 349” (State of Michigan, Dec. 11, 2012), 3, http://goo. gl/r7AJjx (accessed July 23, 2014). These changes do not apply to police and fire department employees.

8 “Public Act 349” (State of Michigan, Dec. 11, 2012), http://goo.gl/ r7AJjx (accessed July 23, 2014).

9 “Master Agreement Between Forest Hills Public Schools Board of Education and Forest Hills MEA-NEA District Association” (Forest Hills Public Schools, June 20, 2011), 8, http://goo.gl/klVDlR (accessed July 29, 2014).

10 Ibid., 9.

11 “Agreement Between the Board of Education of the Tecumseh Public Schools and the Lenawee County Education Association, TEA, MEA/NEA” (Tecumseh Public Schools, Dec. 17, 2012), 2, http://goo. gl/94AGDP (accessed July 29, 2014).

12 Ibid., 1-2.

13 Author’s calculations based on “School Personnel Data and Reports: Full Time Equivalencies Data” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, Dec. 2013), http://goo.gl/9CqVYv (accessed July 30, 2014).

14 “Master Agreement Between Monroe Public Schools Board of Education and Monroe City Education Association” (Monroe Public School District, March 1, 2014), 22, http://goo.gl/056nbQ (accessed July 29, 2014).

15 “Monroe Public Schools Board of Education Special Board Meeting” (Monroe Public Schools, March 4, 2014), http://goo.gl/pEZCrm (accessed July 29, 2014).

16 Tom Gantert, “School Official Says Illegal Language Should Be Removed From Union Contract,” Michigan Capitol Confidential (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, July 5, 2014), http://goo.gl/BhRHoa (accessed July 29, 2014).

17 “Master Agreement Between Monroe Public Schools Board of Education and Monroe City Education Association” (Monroe Public School District, March 1, 2014), 40, http://goo.gl/056nbQ (accessed July 29, 2014).

18 “Labor Agreement Between Board of Education of the Vicksburg Community Schools and Kalamazoo County Education Association-Vicksburg Education Association” (Vicksburg Community Schools, Sept. 4, 2013), http://goo.gl/F5B9e0 (accessed July 29, 2014).

19 Vicksburg Community Schools Superintendent Charlie Glaes, email correspondence with Michigan Capitol Confidential Senior Capitol Correspondent Tom Gantert, May 29, 2014.

20 Author’s calculations based on “2013-14 Pupil Headcount Data: Fall 2013 Enrollment Data” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, 2013), http://goo.gl/pEuZmh (accessed July 30, 2014); “School Personnel Data and Reports: Full Time Equivalencies Data” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, Dec. 2013), http://goo.gl/9CqVYv (accessed July 30, 2014).

21 Audrey Spalding, “Roadblocks to Reform?: A Review of Union Contracts in Michigan Schools” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2014), http://goo.gl/drb7I1 (accessed July 28, 2014).

22 Michael Van Beek, “Merit Pay Survey Results” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Oct. 15, 2012), http://goo.gl/ZNGqCU (accessed July 28, 2014).

23 “Agreement Between St. Clair County Education Association and Algonac Board of Education” (Algonac Community School District, June 24, 2013), 8, 55, http://goo.gl/mSHj1F (accessed July 29, 2014); “Minutes of the Regular Meeting of the Algonac Board of Education” (Algonac Community School District, June 24, 2013), http://goo.gl/zsa9VI (accessed July 29, 2014).

24 “Agreement Between Board of Education of Bloomingdale Public School District #16 and the Van Buren County Education Association/Bloomingdale Education Association, MEA-NEA” (Bloomingdale Public School District #16, June 24, 2013), 6, 53, http://goo.gl/C7PmnZ (accessed July 29, 2014); “Minutes: Bloomingdale Board of Education Regular Meeting”, June 24, 2013.

25 “Master Agreement Between Buckley Community Schools Board of Education and Northern Michigan Education Association, MEA/NEA” (Buckley Community Schools, Sept. 1, 2013), 2, http://goo.gl/Rh2XBB (accessed July 29, 2014); “Buckley Community Schools Board of Education Regular Meeting Official Minutes of September 17, 2013” (Buckley Community Schools, Sept. 17, 2013).

26 “Agreement Between the Chassell Township Schools Board of Education and the Chassell Education Association” (Chassel Township Schools, Oct. 21, 2013), 24, 32, http://goo.gl/SWYzbN (accessed July 29, 2014); “Chassell Township School Board of Education Meeting Minutes” (Chassel Township Schools, Oct. 21, 2013), http://goo.gl/V6fNQN (accessed July 29, 2014).

27 “Collective Bargaining Agreement Between Colon Board of Education and Colon Education Association” (Colon Community Schools, Nov. 13, 2013), 9, 47, http://goo.gl/LGBrFx (accessed July 29, 2014);“Colon School Board Meeting Minutes” (Colon Community Schools, Nov. 11, 2013), http://goo.gl/axDXTJ (accessed July 29, 2014).

28 “Master Agreement Between the Dansville Board of Education and the Ingham/Clinton Education Association/Dansville Education Association” (Dansville Schools, July 1, 2013), 26, 29, http://goo.gl/z3nKVX (accessed July 29, 2014); “Dansville Schools Board Meeting Minutes” (Dansville Schools, June 17, 2013), http://goo.gl/c5XPHx (accessed July 29, 2014).

29 “Agreement Between Farwell Education Association and Farwell Area Schools Board of Education” (Farwell Area Schools, Aug. 19, 2013), 7, 38, http://goo.gl/o5EqgN (accessed Jul. 29, 2014); “Farwell Area Schools Board of Education - Regular Meeting” (Farwell Area Schools, Aug. 19, 2013).

30 “Agreement Between Forest Area Board of Education and Forest Area Education Association” (Forest Area Community Schools, July 1, 2013), 5, 29, http://goo.gl/Cnv5xV (accessed July 29, 2014); “Forest Area Community Schools Board of Education Meeting Minutes” (Forest Area Community Schools, July 8, 2013).

31 “Master Agreement Between the Frankfort-Elberta Area School Board and the Frankfort-Elberta Education Association” (Frankfort-Elberta Area Schools, Aug. 27, 2013), 2, 4, http://goo.gl/tPlPR3 (accessed July 29, 2014); “Frankfort-Elberta Area Schools Board Meeting Minutes” (Frankfort-Elberta Area Schools, Aug. 12, 2013).

32 “Gladwin Community Schools Master Agreement Gladwin Education Association” (Gladwin Community Schools, July 29, 2013), 8, 45, http://goo.gl/3yYVJZ (accessed July 29, 2014); “Gladwin Community Schools Board of Education Special Meeting Minutes” (Gladwin Community Schools, July 29, 2013), http://goo.gl/LrM4p3 (accessed July 29, 2014).

33 “Master Agreement Between the Kalkaska Public Schools and the Northern Michigan Education Association” (Kalkaska Public Schools, Sept. 9, 2013), http://goo.gl/b2gLAa (accessed Aug. 26, 2014); “Kalkaska Public Schools Board of Education Regular Meeting” (Kalkaska Public Schools, Sept. 9, 2013), http://goo.gl/NbVFfZ (accessed Aug. 26, 2014).

34 “Collective Bargaining Agreement between Lawrence Public Schools and the Van Buren County Education Association/Lawrence Education Association” (Lawrence Public Schools, June 28, 2013), http://goo.gl/OP0yll (accessed July 29, 2014); “Lawrence School Board Meeting Minutes” (Lawrence Public Schools, June 24, 2013).

35 “Master Agreement Between the Leslie Board of Education and the Ingham Clinton Education Association” (Leslie School District, July 1, 2013), 5, 38, http://goo.gl/RmhDvr (accessed July 29, 2014); “Leslie Public Schools Minutes, Special Meeting” (Leslie School District, Jul. 10, 2013), http://goo.gl/Uz6dxD (accessed Aug. 26, 2014).

36 “Master Agreement Between Ludington Educational Association and Ludington Board of Education” (Ludington Area School District, Sept. 1, 2013), 27, 30, http://goo.gl/smL89F (accessed July 29, 2014); “Ludington Area School District Board of Education Regular Meeting Minutes” (Ludington Area School District, Aug. 26, 2013).

37 “Agreement Between Mattawan Consolidated School and Kalamazoo County Education Association” (Mattawan Consolidated Schools, June 30, 2014), http://goo.gl/mZ58O3 (accessed July 30, 2014); “Regular Board of Education Meeting” (Mattawan Consolidated Schools, June 10, 2014).

38 “Master Agreement Between Monroe Public Schools Board of Education and Monroe City Education Association” (Monroe Public School District, March 1, 2014), 22, 40, http://goo.gl/056nbQ (accessed July 29, 2014); “Monroe Public Schools Board of Education Special Board Meeting” (Monroe Public Schools, March 4, 2014), http://goo.gl/pEZCrm (accessed July 29, 2014).

39 “Master Agreement Between The Mt. Pleasant Education Association And The Mt. Pleasant Public Schools Board Of Education” (Mt. Pleasant Public Schools, June 17, 2013), 12, 67, http://goo. gl/zIX8qx (accessed July 30, 2014); “Mt. Pleasant School Board Meeting Minutes” (Mt. Pleasant Public Schools, July 8, 2013), http://goo.gl/j7votU (accessed July 30, 2014).

40 “Agreement Between the Munising Public Schools and the Munising Education Association” (Munising Public Schools, Sept. 1, 2013), 1, 2, http://goo.gl/LgJfy2 (accessed July 30, 2014);“Munising Public Schools Board of Education Meeting” (Munising Public Schools, July 26, 2013).

41 “Master Agreement Between Northport Education Association And Northport Board of Education” (Northport Public School District, June 24, 2013), 11, 28, http://goo.gl/NiW6wX (accessed July 30, 2014); “Northport Board of Education Special Meeting” (Northport Public School District, June 24, 2013).

42 “Agreement Between Parchment School District And Kalamazoo County Education Association” (Parchment School District, Oct. 4, 2013), 21, http://goo.gl/zZg3wW (accessed July 31, 2014); Julie Mack, “Most Kalamazoo-Area School Employees Will Feel Impact of New Right-to-Work Law This Summer,” MLive.com, March 28, 2013, http://goo.gl/LDJqho (accessed Aug. 22, 2014).

43 “Agreement Between Reese Board of Education and Reese Professional Education Association” (Reese Public School District, July 11, 2013), 2, http://goo.gl/CoZ7Ei (accessed July 30, 2014); “Minutes of the Regular Meeting of the District Board of the Reese Public School District” (Reese Public School District, July 11, 2013).

44 “Master Agreement: Superior Central School and Superior Central Education Association” (Superior Central School District, July 1, 2013), 12, http://goo.gl/3PjfCe (accessed July 30, 2014); “Superior Central School District Board of Education - Regular Meeting” (Superior Central School District, Aug. 19, 2013), http://goo.gl/3SM6xv (accessed July 30, 2014).

45 “Labor Agreement Between Board of Education of the Vicksburg Community Schools and Kalamazoo County Education Association-Vicksburg Education Association” (Sept. 4, 2013): 2, http://goo.gl/ F5B9e0 (accessed July 29, 2014); Vicksburg Community Schools Superintendent Charlie Glaes, email correspondence with Michigan Capitol Confidential Senior Capitol Correspondent Tom Gantert, May 29, 2014.

46 Author’s calculations based on “2013-14 Pupil Headcount Data: Fall 2013 Enrollment Data” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, 2013), http://goo.gl/pEuZmh (accessed July 30, 2014); “School Personnel Data and Reports: Full Time Equivalencies Data” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, Dec. 2013), http://goo.gl/9CqVYv (accessed July 30, 2014).

47 “Master Agreement Between the Board of Education Armada School District and the Armada Education Association” (Armada Area School District, March 6, 2013), 36, http://goo.gl/hKu0M9 (accessed July 30, 2014); “Armada Area Schools Board of Education Meeting Minutes” (Armada Area School District, March 19, 2013), http://goo.gl/AJfucy (accessed July 30, 2014).

48 “Master Agreement Between Clarkston Community Schools and Clarkston Education Association/MEA-NEA” (Clarkston Community Schools, Sept. 1, 2013), 58, http://goo.gl/DaAFHF (accessed July 29, 2014); “Clarkston Community Schools Board of Education Regular Meeting” (Clarkston Community Schools), http://goo.gl/rPoYx2 (accessed July 30, 2014).

49 “Letter of Agreement Between the Haslett Public Schools and the Haslett Education Association” (Haslett Public Schools, May 9, 2013); “Minutes of Regular Meeting of Haslett Board of Education” (Haslett Public Schools, March 25, 2013), http://goo.gl/BMKSyg (accessed July 30, 2014).

50 “Master Agreement Between the New Haven Schools Education Association and the New Haven Schools Board of Education” (New Haven Community Schools, March 21, 2013), 76, http://goo.gl/QkKfwD (accessed July 30, 2014).

51 “Agency Fee Agreement Between Romulus Community Schools Board of Education and the Wayne County MEA/NEA” (Romulus Community Schools, March 26, 2013), http://goo.gl/Pbfuj9 (accessed July 30, 2014); “Romulus Community Schools Special Meeting” (Romulus Community Schools, March 18, 2013), http://goo.gl/BDgHQq (accessed July 30, 2014).

52 “Rudyard Federation of Teachers RTW Contract” (Rudyard Area Schools, Jan. 22, 2013), http://goo.gl/0nCrKD (accessed July 30, 2014); “Minutes: Workshop Meeting” (Rudyard Area Schools, June 10, 2013), http://goo.gl/zDfbF0 (accessed July 30, 2014).

53 “Letter of Agreement Between South Lake Schools and MEA/NEA Local 1, South Lake Education Association” (South Lake Schools), http://goo.gl/fTkw2O (accessed July 30, 2014).

54 “Taylor Federation of Teachers Union Security Agreement” (Taylor School District, Jan. 24, 2013), http://goo.gl/MhaoAW (accessed July 30, 2014); “Tentative Agreement between Taylor School District Board of Education & Taylor Federation of Teachers: Ratification Meeting” (Taylor School District, Jan. 24, 2013), http://goo.gl/dhNjBS (accessed July 30, 2014).

55 Steffke, Metz and Rhatigan v. Taylor Federation of Teachers, Taylor School District and Taylor Public School Board of Education (Michigan Court of Appeals, Jan. 24, 2014), http://goo.gl/dnji7m (accessed Aug. 22, 2014).

56 “Taylor Federation of Teachers Union Security Agreement” (Taylor School District, Jan. 24, 2013), http://goo.gl/MhaoAW (accessed July 30, 2014).

57 “Master Agreement Between the Board of Education Armada School District and the Armada Education Association” (Armada Area School District, March 6, 2013), http://goo.gl/hKu0M9 (accessed July 30, 2014).

58 “Master Agreement Between Clarkston Community Schools and Clarkston Education Association/MEA-NEA” (Clarkston Community Schools, Sept. 1, 2013), http://goo.gl/DaAFHF (accessed July 29, 2014); “Clarkston Community Schools Board of Education Regular Meeting” (Clarkston Community Schools), http://goo.gl/rPoYx2 (accessed July 30, 2014).

59 “Letter of Agreement Between the Haslett Public Schools and the Haslett Education Association” (Haslett Public Schools, 2013); “Master Agreement Betwen the Haslett Education Association MEA/NEA and the Haslett Board of Education” (Haslett Public Schools, Aug. 16, 2013), http://goo.gl/yF0Cit (accessed July 30, 2014); “Minutes of Regular Meeting of Haslett Board of Education” (Haslett Public Schools, March 25, 2013), http://goo.gl/BMKSyg (accessed July 30, 2014).

60 “Master Agreement Between the New Haven Schools Education Association and the New Haven Schools Board of Education” (New Haven Community Schools, March 21, 2013), 55, 76, http://goo. gl/QkKfwD (accessed July 30, 2014).

61 “Agency Fee Agreement Between Romulus Community Schools Board of Education and the Wayne County MEA/NEA” (Romulus Community Schools, March 26, 2013), http://goo.gl/Pbfuj9 (accessed July 30, 2014); “Romulus Community Schools Special Meeting” (Romulus Community Schools, March 18, 2013), http://goo.gl/BDgHQq (accessed July 30, 2014); “Master Agreement between Romulus Community Schools Board of Education and the Wayne County MEA/NEA”, 2013, http://goo.gl/Q0S7Qy (accessed July 30, 2014).

62 “Rudyard Federation of Teachers Contract” (Rudyard Area Schools, July 1, 2013), http://goo.gl/vNpDjp (accessed July 30, 2014); “Rudyard Area Schools Board of Education” (Rudyard Area Schools, Feb. 11, 2013), http://goo.gl/Ww6BJh (accessed Aug. 28, 2014); “Rudyard Federation of Teachers RTW Contract” (Rudyard Area Schools, Jan. 22, 2013), http://goo.gl/0nCrKD (accessed July 30, 2014).

63 “Letter of Agreement Between South Lake Schools and MEA/NEA Local 1, South Lake Education Association” (South Lake Schools), http://goo.gl/fTkw2O (accessed July 30, 2014).

64 “Taylor Federation of Teachers Union Security Agreement” (Taylor School District, Jan. 24, 2013), http://goo.gl/MhaoAW (accessed July 30, 2014); “Memorandum of Agreement Between The Taylor Public School Board of Education And The Taylor Federation of Teachers, AFT Local 1085, AFT Michigan, AFL-CIO,” http://goo.gl/YOwcnE.

65 “Letter of Agreement Between South Lake Schools and MEA/NEA Local 1, South Lake Education Association” (South Lake Schools), http://goo.gl/fTkw2O (accessed July 30, 2014).

66 Author’s calculations based on “2013-14 Pupil Headcount Data: Fall 2013 Enrollment Data” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, 2013), http://goo.gl/pEuZmh (accessed July 30, 2014); “School Personnel Data and Reports: Full Time Equivalencies Data” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, Dec. 2013), http://goo.gl/9CqVYv (accessed July 30, 2014).

67 “Public Act 349” (State of Michigan, Dec. 11, 2012), http://goo.gl/ r7AJjx (accessed July 23, 2014).

68 Tom Gantert, “Union Surrenders Member Benefits To Keep Unenforceable Clause In Contract,” Michigan Capitol Confidential (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, May 9, 2014), http://goo.gl/0yhqaR (accessed July 30, 2014).

69 “Wyoming Public Schools Board of Education and the Kent County Education Association: Agreement” (Wyoming Public Schools, Aug. 15, 2013), 6, http://goo.gl/MSZTzs (accessed July 30, 2014).

70 Tom Gantert, “Union Surrenders Member Benefits To Keep Unenforceable Clause In Contract,” Michigan Capitol Confidential (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, May 9, 2014), http://goo.gl/0yhqaR (accessed July 30, 2014).

71 “Wyoming Public Schools Initial Proposal to the Kent County Education Association” (Wyoming Public Schools, Feb. 26, 2013).

72 “Kent County Education Association Counter Proposal to Wyoming Public Schools” (Wyoming Public Schools, 2013).

73 Wyoming Public Schools Director of Finance and Human Resources Matt Lewis, email correspondence with Michigan Capitol Confidential Senior Capitol Correspondent Tom Gantert, April, 24, 2014.

74 Ibid.

75 “Master Agreement Between the Chippewa Valley Schools Board of Education and the MEA-NEA Local 1, Chippewa Valley” (Chippewa Valley Schools), 49–50, http://goo.gl/C07ZWX (accessed July 30, 2014); “Letter of Understanding Between MEA-NEA Local 1, Chippewa Valley and Chippewa Valley Schools Board of Education” (Chippewa Valley Schools, Feb. 14, 2013), http://goo.gl/fPtGcu (accessed July 30, 2014); “Chippewa Valley Schools Board of Education - Regular Meeting Administration Building” (Chippewa Valley Schools, March 4, 2013), http://goo.gl/kmk9Ga (accessed July 30, 2014).

76 “Letter of Understanding Between MEA-NEA Local 1, Chippewa Valley and Chippewa Valley Schools Board of Education” (Chippewa Valley Schools, Feb. 14, 2013), http://goo.gl/fPtGcu (accessed July 30, 2014).

77 Jack Spencer, “Another School Contract Extended To Lock Teachers Into Union Membership,” Michigan Capitol Confidential (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, March 26, 2013), http://goo.gl/ XQMGJq (accessed July 30, 2014).

78 “Agreement Between East China School District and East China Education Association” (East China School District, March 18, 2013), 42, http://goo.gl/xxQbqW (accessed July 30, 2014).

79 “Contract Agreement: Board of Education Cheboygan Area School District and the Cheboygan Area Education Association” (Cheboygan Area Schools, March 25, 2013), 2, http://goo.gl/r5VhF4 (accessed July 30, 2014).

80 “Master Agreement Between the Chippewa Valley Schools Board of Education and the MEA-NEA Local 1, Chippewa Valley” (Chippewa Valley Schools), 50, http://goo.gl/C07ZWX (accessed July 30, 2014); “Letter of Understanding Between MEA-NEA Local 1, Chippewa Valley and Chippewa Valley Schools Board of Education” (Chippewa Valley Schools, Feb. 14, 2013), http://goo.gl/fPtGcu (accessed July 30, 2014).

81 “Professional Agreement between the Board of Education of the Clintondale Community School District and the MEA-NEA Local 1” (Clintondale Community Schools, 2013), http://goo.gl/sUoccZ (accessed Jul. 30, 2014).

82 “Agreement Between East China School District and East China Education Association” (East China School District, March 18, 2013), 7, 41, http://goo.gl/xxQbqW (accessed July 30, 2014).

83 “Agreement Between the Grosse Ile Board of Education and Grosse Ile Education Association” (Grosse Ile Township Schools, March 19, 2013), 3, 38, http://goo.gl/ThPGmT (accessed July 31, 2014).

84 “Master Contract: Litchfield Community Schools and Litchfield Education Association” (Litchfield Community Schools, July 1, 2013), 3, 29, http://goo.gl/0a1yMK (accessed July 31, 2014).

85 “Agreement between Marlette Community Schools Board of Education and Marlette Education Association” (Marlette Community Schools, July 1, 2013), http://goo.gl/QS8GcF (accessed Aug. 27, 2014).

86 “Agreement between Merrill Community School District and Merrill Education Association” (Merrill Community School District, 2013), 1, 25, http://goo.gl/1gnRSK (accessed July 30, 2014).

87 “Agreement: New Buffalo Area Schools and New Buffalo 5-C Education Association” (New Buffalo Area Schools, Aug. 1, 2013), 8, http://goo.gl/cXCfKI (accessed July 31, 2014); “Minutes of Regular Meeting of the Board of Education New Buffalo Area Schools” (New Buffalo Area Schools, March 18, 2013), http://goo.gl/E45mKj (accessed July 31, 2014).

88 “Agreement Between Board of Education of the Northview Public Schools and Kent County Education Association” (Northview Public Schools, March 22, 2013), 9, 43, http://goo.gl/qqkW8R (accessed July 31, 2014).

89 “Master Agreement Between Pinckney Community Schools Board of Education And Pinckney Educational Association” (Pinckney Community Schools, March 25, 2013), 3, http://goo.gl/SPdWyB (accessed July 31, 2014).

90 “Master Agreement Between the St Louis Board of Education and the St Louis Education Association” (St. Louis Public Schools, July 1, 2013), 8, http://goo.gl/tjoPov (accessed July 30, 2014).

91 “Agreement between the Tahquamenon Area School District and the Tahquamenon Area Education Association” (Tahquamenon Area School District, July 1, 2013), 20, http://goo.gl/zMmaVt (accessed Aug. 26, 2014); “The Minutes of the Regular Board Meeting of June 17, 2013” (Tahquamenon Area School District, June 17, 2013), http://goo.gl/inaekH (accessed Aug. 26, 2014).

92 “Master Agreement Between Tri County Area Schools Board of Education and Tri County Education Association” (Tri County Area Schools, March 26, 2013), 8, 53, http://goo.gl/TCcbhW (accessed July 31, 2014).

93 “Wyoming Public Schools Board of Education and the Kent County Education Association: Agreement” (Wyoming Public Schools, Aug. 15, 2013), 6, 38, http://goo.gl/MSZTzs (accessed July 30, 2014).

94 Author’s calculations based on “2013-14 Pupil Headcount Data: Fall 2013 Enrollment Data” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, 2013), http://goo.gl/pEuZmh (accessed July 30, 2014); “School Personnel Data and Reports: Full Time Equivalencies Data” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, Dec. 2013), http://goo.gl/9CqVYv (accessed July 30, 2014).

95 “Agreement Between the Warren Consolidated Schools Board of Education and the Warren Education Association” (Warren Consolidated Schools, March 6, 2013), 105, http://goo.gl/gNStqH (accessed July 31, 2014).

96 Author’s calculations based on “2013-14 Pupil Headcount Data: Fall 2013 Enrollment Data” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, 2013), http://goo.gl/pEuZmh (accessed July 30, 2014); “School Personnel Data and Reports: Full Time Equivalencies Data” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, Dec. 2013), http://goo.gl/9CqVYv (accessed July 30, 2014).

97 “Conditional Increase Tentative Agreement” (Lansing Public School District, March 15, 2013), 3, http://goo.gl/Xm9oKX (accessed July 31, 2014); “Master Agreement Between Lansing Schools Education Association and Lansing School District Board of Education” (Lansing Public School District, Sept. 28, 2009), http://goo.gl/ZBTkuP (accessed July 31, 2014).

98 “Master Agreement Between the Berrien Springs Education Association and the Berrien Springs Board of Education” (Berrien Springs Public Schools, March 4, 2013), http://goo.gl/8kQvMv (accessed July 31, 2014); “Berrien Springs FOIA Response” (Berrien Springs Public Schools, April 30, 2014).

99 “Berrien Springs FOIA Response” (Berrien Springs Public Schools, April 30, 2014).

100 “Master Agreement Between the Berrien Springs Education Association and the Berrien Springs Board of Education” (Berrien Springs Public Schools, March 4, 2013), 3, http://goo.gl/8kQvMv (accessed July 31, 2014).

101 Ibid.

102 “Master Agreement Between Lansing Schools Education Association and Lansing School District Board of Education” (Lansing Public School District, Sept. 28, 2009), 69, http://goo.gl/ZBTkuP (accessed July 31, 2014); “Conditional Increase Tentative Agreement” (Lansing Public School District, March 15, 2013), http://goo.gl/Xm9oKX (accessed July 31, 2014).

103 “Master Agreement between the Olivet Education Association” (Olivet Community School District, March 15, 2013), 5, 42, http://goo. gl/ve8R8h (accessed July 31, 2014).

104 Full agreement effective on Aug. 24, 2013, agency fee portion effective in March 2013. “Agreement Between the Warren Consolidated Schools Board of Education and the Warren Education Association” (Warren Consolidated Schools, March 6, 2013), 51, 104–106, http://goo.gl/gNStqH (accessed July 31, 2014).

105 “Master Agreement Between the Waverly Board of Education and the Ingham/Clinton Education Association/Waverly Education Association, MEA/NEA”, 38, 63, http://goo.gl/l0H48f (accessed July 31, 2014).

106 Author’s calculations based on “2013-14 Pupil Headcount Data: Fall 2013 Enrollment Data” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, 2013), http://goo.gl/pEuZmh (accessed July 30, 2014); “School Personnel Data and Reports: Full Time Equivalencies Data” (Center for Educational Performance and Information, Dec. 2013), http://goo.gl/9CqVYv (accessed July 30, 2014).

107 Amy Biolchini, “Ann Arbor School Board Passes Budget despite Outburst, Controversy over Custodial Privatization,” MLive.com, June 27, 2014, http://goo.gl/6b4vB6 (accessed July 31, 2014); “Ann Arbor School Board Approves Pact with Teachers Union,” AAPS News (Ann Arbor Public Schools, June 24, 2014), http://goo.gl/pVKDfx (accessed Aug. 22, 2014).

108 “Master Agreement Between the Coldwater Community Schools Board of Education and the Coldwater Education Association” (Coldwater Community Schools, March 25, 2013), 3, http://goo.gl/ S4BqCp (accessed July 31, 2014).

109 Ibid., 53.

110 “Tentative Agreement between Taylor School District Board of Education & Taylor Federation of Teachers: Ratification Meeting” (Taylor School District, Jan. 24, 2013), http://goo.gl/dhNjBS (accessed July 30, 2014); “Master Agreement Between the Board of Education Armada School District and the Armada Education Association” (Armada Area School District, March 6, 2013), http://goo.gl/hKu0M9 (accessed July 30, 2014).

111 “Agreement Between the Dearborn Board of Education and the Dearborn Federation of Teachers” (Dearborn Public Schools, March 14, 2013), http://goo.gl/BMGvjO (accessed Aug. 27, 2014); “Agreement Between the Warren Consolidated Schools Board of Education and the Warren Education Association” (Warren Consolidated Schools, March 6, 2013), http://goo.gl/gNStqH (accessed July 31, 2014); “Taylor Federation of Teachers Union Security Agreement” (Taylor School District, Jan. 24, 2013), http://goo.gl/MhaoAW (accessed July 30, 2014); “Master Agreement Between the Board of Education Hartland Consolidated Schools and the Hartland Education Association MEA/NEA” (Hartland Consolidated Schools, March 25, 2013), http://goo.gl/ajk5cy (accessed Aug. 27, 2014); “Woodhaven-Brownstown School District Board of Education Special Meeting” (Woodhaven-Brownstown School District, March 18, 2013), http://goo.gl/VdOaQq (accessed Aug. 27, 2014).

112 Amy Biolchini, “Ann Arbor School Board Passes Budget despite Outburst, Controversy over Custodial Privatization,” MLive.com, June 27, 2014, http://goo.gl/6b4vB6 (accessed July 31, 2014); “Tentative Memorandum of Agreement Between the Ann Arbor Board of Education and the Ann Arbor Education Association” (Ann Arbor Public Schools, March 18, 2013), 10, http://goo.gl/WT8yX3 (accessed July 31, 2014).

113 “Agreement Between the Beaverton Rural Schools Board of Education and the Beaverton Education Association” (Beaverton Rural Schools, May 29, 2013), 4, 34.

114 “Master Agreement Between the Coldwater Community Schools Board of Education and the Coldwater Education Association” (Coldwater Community Schools, March 25, 2013), 3, 55, http://goo.gl/ S4BqCp (accessed July 31, 2014).

115 “Agreement Between North Huron Board of Education and the Tri-County Bargaining Assocation and the North Huron Education Association” (North Huron Schools, July 1, 2007), 4, 57, http://goo. gl/i0rYxZ (accessed July 31, 2014).

116 “Master Agreement Between the Richmond Board of Education and MEA-NEA Local 1, Richmond Education Association” (Richmond Community School District, March 23, 2013), 4, 59, http://goo.gl/0jTlz0 (accessed July 31, 2014).

117 “Agreement Between the Board of Education of the Shepherd Public Schools and the Shepherd Education Association” (Shepherd Public Schools, July 1, 2012), 2, 43, http://goo.gl/rppAEe (accessed July 31, 2014).

118 Amber M. Winkler, Janie Scull and Dara Zeehandelaar, “How Strong Are U.S. Teacher Unions?: A State by State Comparison” (Fordham Institute, Oct. 2012), 33, http://goo.gl/eqT58O (accessed July 31, 2014).

119 Ibid., 193.

120 Ibid., 194.

121 “Public Act 349” (State of Michigan, Dec. 11, 2012), http://goo.gl/ r7AJjx (accessed July 23, 2014).

122 Ibid.

123 MCL § 388.1622f(2)(g).

124 “Public Act 436 of 2012” (State of Michigan, Dec. 26, 2012), http://goo.gl/er3Jzu (accessed July 31, 2014).