1 MDOT, State Long Range Transportation Plan -2005-2030: Highway/Bridge Technical Report, October 31, 2006, p. 4-8.

2 Citizens Research Council of Michigan, Michigan Highway Finance and Governance, May, 1997, p. 6-11.

3 Federal Highway Administration, 2004 Highway Statistics, Table HM-10, 2005, p. V-9.

4 Engler, John, Office of the Governor, Build Michigan II Press Release, May 8, 1997, p. 1-3.

5 MDOT, Long Range Plan: Highway/Bridge, p. 5-8.

6 Federal Highway Administration, 2004 Highway Statistics, Table LGF-1, 2004, www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohpi/hss.

7 MDOT, State Long Range Transportation Plan -2005-2030: Finance Technical Report, August 31, 2006, p. 14-20.

8 Thiel, Craig, Senate Fiscal Agency, State Transportation Infrastructure Investment: Problems on the Horizon, February, 2002, p. 4.

9 Hamilton, William E., House Fiscal Agency, Act 51 Primer: A Guide to 1951 PA 51 on Michigan Transportation Funding, May, 2003, p. 15.

10 Thiel, Craig, Senate Fiscal Agency, State Notes: Challenging EO 2001-9, February, 2003, p. 1.

11 Senate Fiscal Agency, SB554 Bill Analysis, June 11, 2003, p. 1-2; and Bendele, Steve, Michigan Secretary of State, E-Mail on SOS Appropriations from the TACF, March 2, 2007.

12 Michigan Office of the Auditor General, Performance Audit of the Use of Transportation Related Funding, December, 2006, p. 7-8.

13 MDOT, Finance Division Web Page, State Trunkline Fund Graphics, September 30, 2005, http://www.mich.gov/mdot/0,1607,7-151-9623_10736---,00.html.

14 Federal Highway Administration, 2004 Highway Statistics, Table LGF-2, 2004, www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohpi/hss.

15 Ibid., Table HF10, 2005, and Hank, Leon, E., MDOT, Chief Administrative Officer, Financial Trends, Alternatives, and Strategies in difficult Economic Times, 2007, p. 12.

16 American Trucking Association, American Trucking Trends, 2004 Table 5-1, 2006, p. 37.

17 Federal Highway Administration, 2004 Highway Statistics, Table FE-221, 2005, www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/ohpi/hss.

18 U.S. Chamber of Commerce, National Chamber Foundation, Future Highway and Public Transportation Finance, 2005, p. 3; Hank, Leon, E., MDOT, Financial Trends ... , 2007, p. 13.

19 Michigan PA268 of 2006 (effective September 1, 2006); Hoffman, Kathy, "Mix of Solutions May Be Needed to Fund Roads," www.DetroitNews.Com, July 2, 2006, p. 1.

20 Michigan Department of Treasury, Bureau of Tax and Economic Policy, Tax Analysis Division, Michigan’s Motor Fuel and Registration Taxes FY2003-2004, February 2006, p. 5-7.

21 MDOT, Transportation Planning Division, Gasoline Tax Purchasing Power Adjusted for Highway Construction Index, 2007, Table 1.

22 Michigan Department of Treasury, Michigan’s Motor Fuel ..., p. 12-13 and Exhibit 31, p. 40 .

23 Ibid., p. 16-21 and Exhibit 36, p. 46.

24 American Petroleum Institute, Notes to State Motor Fuel Excise and Other Taxes, October 10, 2006, p. 2.

25 Michigan Department of Treasury, Michigan’s Motor Fuel ..., p. 13 and Exhibit 37, p. 47.

26 Ibid., p. 14.

27 Nevada Trucking Association, Annual State and Federal Highway User Taxes On a Typical 5 Axle Tractor Trailer Combination Truck, www.nmta.com/includes/rdtax/index2.htm, 2006, p. 1.

28 MDOT, Long Range Plan – Finance, p. 28-29.

29 Transportation Summit, Funding Action Team, Transportation Needs and Funding Alternatives, February, 2007, p. 26.

30 American Trucking Association, 2004 American Trucking Trends, 2004 Table 5-1 , 2006, p. 37.

31 Nevada Trucking Association, Annual State and Federal Highway User Taxes ..., 2006, p. 1-2.

32 American Trucking Association, American Trucking Trends, 2004 Table 5-2, 2006, p. 38.

33 Ibid., p. 39.

34 MDOT, Trucks and Transportation Position Paper, February, 1998, p. 3.

35 Michigan Trucking Association, Legislative Report, Vol. 13, No. 3, Passage of 1997 Build Michigan II Transportation Funding Plan, SB581 re Truck Registration Fees, July 17, 1997, p. 1-2.

36 Nevada Trucking Association, Annual State and Federal Highway User Taxes…., p. 1-2.

37 Federal Highway Administration, Addendum to the 1997 Federal Highway Cost Allocation Study Final Report, May, 2000, www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/otps/costallocation.htm, p. 1-20.

38 MDOT, Diesel Fuel Equity and Simplification Package Position Paper, February, 2002, p. 2.

39 National Research Council and American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), as quoted in MDOT Position Paper on Trucks and Transportation, February, 1998, p. 2.

40 Michigan House of Representatives, Report of Transportation Committee Subcommittee on Truck Weights, Lansing, Michigan, November 27, 1990, p. 3.

41 MDOT, Trucks and Transportation Position Paper, February, 1998, p. 2.

42 Michigan Trucking Association, Michigan Truck Axle Weight Law, Lansing, Michigan, 1993, p. 4-5.

43 Keane, Angela, "Highway Trust Fund Pothole," Traffic World, November 14, 2005, p. 15.

44 Downey, Mortimer, "Long Term Transport Planning Needed," Traffic World, August 29, 2005, p. 8.

45 Detroit Free Press, "Editorial: Roads, Taxes," Detroit Free Press, October 9, 2005, p. A10.

46 Jeff, Gloria, Michigan Department of Transportation, Reauthorization: The Final Chapter, August 25, 2005, p. 10.

47 MDOT, Five Year Transportation Program: 2007-2011, November 9, 2006, p. 18-19.

48 Transportation Summit, Transportation Needs and Funding Alternatives, February, 2007, p. 45; and MDOT, Five Year Transportation Program: 2007-2011, November 9, 2006, p.19.

49 MDOT, News Release: Road Funding Gap Grows to $300 Million, February 1, 2007, p. 1.

50 Federal Highway Administration, Status of the Nation’s Highways, Bridges and Transit: 2004 Conditions and Performance, March 9, 2006, p. 3-4.

51 U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Future Highway and Public Transportation Finance, 2005, p. 1-2.

52 Keane, Angela, "NAM Sees Infrastructure Push," Traffic World, January 8, 2007, p. 14.

53 Keane, Angela, "Taxing Toll Trouble," Traffic World, June 13, 2005, p. 23.

54 Gallagher, John, "Riding the Logistics Road," Traffic World, September 18, 2006, p. 13.

55 MDOT, State Long Range Transportation Plan 2005-2030 – Conditions

and Performance Technical Report, December 11, 2006, p. 22-32.

56 Ibid., p. 71.

57 Lane, Amy, "Gas Tax Increase Gets Backing From Michigan Chamber," Crain’s Detroit Business, February 1, 2007, p. 1.

58 SEMCOG, 2005 - 2030 Regional Transportation Plan for Southeast Michigan, November, 2004, p. 2, 59-60.

59 Osborne, Ken, "Local Officials React to Michigan Road Report," The State News, March 1, 2006, www.statenews.com/article.phtml?pk=35010.

60 Fluker, Anjali, "Traffic Self help," Crain’s Detroit Business, April 11, 2005, p. 11.

61 The Road Information Program, Michigan’s Transportation System, January, 2004, p. 23-26.

62 Helms, Matt, "State’s Future Road Work is a $27 Billion Job," Detroit Free Press, August 31, 2006, p. B4.

63 MDOT, Diesel Fuel Equity and Simplification Package Position Paper, February, 2002, p. 1.

64 MDOT, Long Range Plan – Conditions and Performance, p. 13-14.

65 Federal Highway Administration, Freight Transportation: Improvements

and the Economy, June, 2004, p. 1.

66 Federal Highway Administration, State profile – Michigan: 1998, 2010, 2020 – Freight Flows To, From and Within Michigan, Undated, p. 1-6.

67 Federal Highway Administration, Freight Transportation ... , p. 1.

68 MDOT, State Long Range Transportation Plan - 2005-2030: Freight Technical Report, October 31, 2006, p. 6.

69 Federal Highway Administration, Estimated Michigan Average Annual Daily Truck Traffic: 1998-2020, Undated, p. 4-5.

70 MDOT, Long Range Plan — Highway and Bridge, p. 15-17.

71 Anderson Economic Group, Benchmarking for Success: A Comparison of State Infrastructure, for the Michigan House of Representatives, December, 2006, p. 8-9.

72 The Road Information Program, Making the Grade in Michigan, February, 2006, p. 1-14.

73 MDOT, Long Range Plan – Highway and Bridge, p. 45-62.

74 Southeast Michigan Council of Governments, Congestion Management System Plan for Southeast Michigan, December, 2004, p. v.

75 Anderson Economic Group, Benchmarking for Success ..., p. 11-13; and email from Anderson on March 2, 2007 with a revised Table 4.

76 Detroit News Staff, "Editorial: Fix Traffic Congestion With Better Road Plan," The Detroit News, October 19, 2005, p. A16.

77 The Road Information Program, The Interstate Highway System in Michigan: Saving Lives, Time and Money, June, 2006, p. 10.

78 The Road Information Program, Michigan’s Transportation System, January, 2004, p. 18.

79 Hoffman, Kathy Barks, "Michigan’s Crumbling Road and lack of Money Pose Challenges," www.DetroitNews.com, July 2, 2006, p. 1.

80 MDOT, Five Year Transportation Program: 2007-2011, November 9, 2006, p. 23.

81 MDOT, News Release: Road Funding Gap Grows to $300 Million, February 1, 2007, p. 1.

82 MDOT, Diesel Fuel Equity and Simplification Package Position Paper, February, 2002, p. 1-3.

83 MDOT, Transportation Planning Division, Gasoline Tax Purchasing Power Adjusted for Highway Construction Index, 2007, Table 1.

84 MDOT, Long Range Plan — Finance, p. 28-29.; and MDOT, Five Year Transportation Program: 2007-2011, p. 15.

85 Wilcox, Fran, "Road Cuts Set for Ingham County," Williamston Enterprise, January 7, 2007, p. 5.

86 Feighan, Maureen, "Belt Gets Tighter on Road Funding," The Detroit News, September 20, 2006, p. B3.

87 Chandler, Greg, "Road Workers Get Cut Off," The Grand Rapids Press, May 27, 2006, p. A3.

88 Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Report 342: Primer on Transportation, Productivity and Economic Development, September, 1991, p. v.

89 Aschauer, David, "Is Public Expenditure Productive," Journal of Monetary Economics, 23, p. 177-200; and Federal Highway Administration, Assessing the Relationship Between Transportation Infrastructure and Productivity, August, 1992, p. 5-6.

90 Aschauer, David, Economic Policy Institute, Public Investment and Private Sector Growth: The Economic Benefits of Reducing America’s Third Deficit, 1990, p. 1-2.

91 Federal Highway Administration, Assessing the Relationship Between Transportation ..., p. 15.

92 Aschauer, David, Economic Policy Institute, Public Investment and Private Sector Growth: ..., p. 28.

93 Federal Highway Administration, Freight Transportation: …., p. 3-5; and Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Report 342: Primer on Transportation ..., p. iv-ix.

94 Robbins, Martin E. and Anne Strauss-Wieder, The Brookings Institution, Metropolitan Policy Program, Principles for a U.S. Public Freight Agenda in a Global Economy, January, 2006, p. 4-7; Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Report 342: Primer on Transportation, ..., p. iv-viii; and Federal Highway Administration, Freight Transportation ..., p. A6-14.

95 ICF Consulting, HLB Decision Sciences, and Louis Berger Group, for the Federal Highway Administration, Freight Benefit/Cost Study: Capturing the Full Benefits of Freight Transportation Improvements – A Non-Technical Review of Linkages and the Benefit-Cost Analysis Framework, May 11, 2001, p. 6-13; and The Road Information Program, The Interstate Highway System in Michigan, p. 16-17.

96 Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Report 342: Primer on Transportation ..., p. xiii.

97 Federal Highway Administration, Freight Benefit-Cost Analysis Study: Summary of Phase II Results, January, 2004, p. 2-3; and ICF Consulting, HLB Decision Sciences, and Louis Berger Group, for the Federal Highway Administration, Freight Benefit/Cost Study: Capturing the Full Benefits ..., p. 6-13.

98 Intermodal Association of North America, "DOT Unveils Congestion

Initiative," Intermodal Insights, July, 2006, p. 5.

99 Page, Paul, "Lead Shippers," Traffic World, April 10, 2006, p. 4.

100 Delaney, Robert, Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals, Annual Logistics Costs in the U.S. Economy, 2004, p. 6.

101 Federal Highway Administration, Freight Transportation:…., p. 7.

102 Apogee Research, Inc., for the Trucking Research Institute, The Economic Importance of the National Highway System, 1994, p. 14-16.

103 Ibid., p. 18-20.

104 Ibid., p. 21-23.

105 Keane, Angela, "Calling On Shippers," Traffic World, May 29, 2006, p. 11.

106 Apogee Research, Inc., for the Trucking Research Institute, The Economic Importance ..., p. 29-31.

107 Abbott, Scott, "Congestion Crisis Mounts, Costing $200 Billion a Year," AAPA Seaports Magazine, 2007, p. 13-14.

108 Yatsko, Tim, "View From the Road," Traffic World, September 18, 2006, p. 6.

109 MDOT, Long Range Plan-Freight, p. 1; and Federal Highway Administration, An Assessment of Freight Bottlenecks on Highways, http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/otps/bottlenecks/chap1.htm, August, 2006.

110 Martinez, Michelle, "Delayed Interchanges Keep Businesses Waiting," Crain’s Detroit Business, April 11, 2005, p. 1; and Michigan Infrastructure and Transportation Association, Wixom Closing Emphasizes Need to Fix Michigan’s Crumbling Transportation System, Undated Press Release, p. 1.

111 Michigan Infrastructure and Transportation Association, DriveMI, January 2, 2007, www.drivemi.org.

112 Rakolta, John, "Airport Could Turn Region Into Global Hub," The Detroit News, January 5, 2007, p. A11.

113 Economic Development Research Group, Inc. and the University of Michigan Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, Economic Benefits of the Michigan Department of Transportation’s 2006-2010 Highway Program, March, 2006, p. 15-23.

114 Michigan Infrastructure and Transportation Association, DriveMI, January 2, 2007, www.drivemi.org.

115 The Road Information Program, The Interstate Highway System …., p. 19-21.

116 Michigan Infrastructure and Transportation Association, DriveMI, January 2, 2007, www.drivemi.org.

117 Balaker, Ted and Sam Staley, The Road More Traveled, Rowman and Littlefield Publishing, Inc., 2006, pp. 63-66.

118 Copeland, Larry, "Cities Afraid of Death by Congestion: Extra Wide Freeways Are Among Ideas to Keep Traffic and Local Economies Moving Smoothly in Future," USA Today, March 1, 2007, p. A3.

119 Mackinac Center for Public Policy, "Op-Ed: Here’s How to Trim State Budget by $1.8 Billion Per Year," The Detroit News, April 19, 2003, p. A11.

120 Michigan Office of the Governor, 21st Century Jobs Fund Awards Create Jobs, Diversify Economy in Michigan, September 4, 2006, www.mich.gov; Hornbeck, Mark, "Business Investment Plan Won’t Help Now – 21st Century Job Fund," The Detroit News, November 27, 2005, p. B1 and The Detroit News, "Editorial: Money Today But Jobs for Tomorrow Unlikely," The Detroit News, January 21, 2007, A10.

121 Citizens Research Council, Memorandum No. 1046: Michigan Highway Finance and Governance, November, 1996, p. 4.

122 Michigan Department of Treasury, Michigan Motor Fuel and Registration Taxes…, February 2006, p. 6.

123 Michigan House of Representatives, HB4082, 2005, House Fiscal Agency (HFA) Bill Analysis; and interview with HFA Analyst Bill Hamilton, February, 2007.

124 Michigan MCL257.801(1)(d), Discounts, rendered January 7, 2007.

125 Heinlein, Gary, "Candidate Responses to Detroit News Questions About Road Issues," October 14, 2002, p. 1.

126 Michigan Transportation Asset Management Council, Asset Management Guide for Local Agencies in Michigan, prepared by Cambridge Systematics, Inc, March 31, 2006, p. 3.4-4.6.

127 Michigan, PA 308 of 1998, Transportation Funding Study Committee, Transportation Funding Committee Report, June 1, 2000, p. 49-50.

128 Hiraki, Ryan and Jamie Page, "Lee Triples Impact Fees," Fort Meyers News Press, February 1, 2007, p. A1.

129 Mrozowski, Jennifer, "Incentives Proposed for Pooling Services," The Detroit News, February 9, 2007, p. B3; Power, Phil, "State Offered 8-Step Plan to Dig Out of Fiscal Mess," Lansing State Journal, February 11, 2007, p. A7; and Detroit Free Press Staff, "Editorial: Merge to Serve Localities Better," Detroit Free Press, February 1, 2007, p. A10.

130 Detroit News Staff, "Editorial: More Stick, Less Carrot, for Municipalities," The Detroit News, February 21, 2007, p. A8.

131 Lansing State Journal, "Editorial: Road Shift – New State Funding Highlights Need to Alter Road Funding," Lansing State Journal, July 30, 2006, p. A10

132 Chebium, Taju, "Toll Road Leases Sought," Detroit Free Press, February 22, 2007, p. A4.

133 Machalaba, Daniel, "Steep Increases Set for Toll Roads," The Wall Street Journal," April 12, 2005, p. D1.

134 Federal Highway Administration, Opportunities for State and Other Qualifying Agencies to Gain Authority to Toll Facilities Constructed Using Federal Funds, No. 4910-22-P, January 6, 2006, http://www.ops.fhwa.dot/tolling_pricing/announcement/tolling_announcement.htm; Federal Highway Administration, Fact Sheets on Highway Provisons – Tolling Programs, www.fhwa.dot.gov/safetealu/ factsheets/tolling.htm; Hedlund, Karen, J. and Nancy C. Smith, Nossaman, Gunther, Knox and Elliot, LLP, SAFETEA-LU Promotes Private Investment in Transportation, August 1, 2005, p 1-7; and Swope, Christopher, "The Fast Lane: Can We Price Our Way Out of Gridlock," Governing, May, 2005, p. 24-30.

135 McKinnon, John D., "Bush Plays Traffic Cop in Budget Request," The Wall Street Journal, February 5, 2007, p. A6.

136 Intermodal Association of North America, "DOT Picks Eight Roads for Congestion Relief," Intermodal Insights, March, 2007, p. 6.

137 MDOT, Transportation Fund Annual Report, September 30, 2006, Report No.139, 2006, p. 1-13.

138 Michigan, PA 308 of 1998, Transportation Funding Study Committee, Transportation Funding Committee Report, June 1, 2000, p. 21.

139 Taylor, John, C., testimony before the Michigan Transportation Funding Study Committee, August 25, 1999, Transportation Funding Committee Report, June 1, 2000, p. 72.

140 Alderfer, Philip W., Senate Fiscal Agency, The ABC’s of Michigan Highways: The Privatization of Maintenance Contracting in the Department of Transportation, January, 1998, p. 11-13.

141 FHWA, Highway Statistics, Table LGF-2, 2004; and Taylor, John C., Fixing the Roads: A Blueprint for Michigan Transportation Infrastructure Policy, April, 1995, p. 23; The Detroit News, "Editorial: Michigan’s Prevailing Hypocrisy," The Detroit News, December 16, 1994, p. A-14.

142 Michigan Auditor General, Performance Audit on the Use of Warranties at the Michigan Department of Transportation, April, 2006, p. 11-18.

143 Michigan, PA 308 of 1998, Transportation Funding Study Committee, Transportation Funding Committee Report, June 1, 2000, p. 15.

144 Power, Phil, "State Offered 8-Step Plan to Dig Out of Fiscal Mess," Lansing State Journal, February 11, 2007, p. A7

145 Piehl, Beth, "Road Commission Costs," Petoskey News-Review, August 20, 2002, unpaged.

146 Michigan Court of Appeals, 68 Mich App 390, County Road Association of Michigan v. State Highway Commission, 1976, p. 390-402.

147 Michigan, PA 308 of 1998, Transportation Funding Study Committee, Transportation Funding Committee Report, June 1, 2000, p. 74.

148 Michigan, PA 308 of 1998, Transportation Funding Study Committee, Transportation Funding Committee Report, June 1, 2000, p. 1-77.

149 Michigan, PA 308 of 1998, Transportation Funding Study Committee, Transportation Funding Committee Report, June 1, 2000, p. 65.

150 Greenwood, Tom, "Freeway Message Boards Too Costly," The Detroit News, April 4, 2002, p. Web page; and recent author observations.