1. Julie Mack, “23% of Michigan Public School Students Opt for School Choice,” MLive.com, Aug. 29, 2016, https://perma.cc/ZK38-LD8Z.

2. Joshua Cowen, Benjamin Creed and Venessa Keesler, “Dynamic Participation in Inter‐District Open Enrollment: Evidence from Michigan 2005-2013” (The Education Policy Center at Michigan State University, July 2015), 15, https://perma.cc/4SBG-LGZY.

3. MCL § 380.501; MCL § 388.1705.

4. “Michigan Charter Schools - Questions and Answers” (Michigan Department of Education, Jan. 2016), http://perma.cc/B3TA-DDMA.

5. “Schools of Choice” (Michigan Department of Education, Dec. 2013), https://perma.cc/6BM7-FEG5.

6. MCL § 388.1705.

7. MCL § 388.1705c.

8. For an example, see: “The Kent ISD Collaborative Schools of Choice Plan” (Kent Intermediate Superintendents’ Association, 2017), https://perma.cc/JH8Z-KN69.

9. Joshua Cowen, Benjamin Creed and Venessa Keesler, “Dynamic Participation in Inter‐District Open Enrollment: Evidence from Michigan 2005-2013” (The Education Policy Center at Michigan State University, July 2015), https://perma.cc/4SBG-LGZY.

10. Author’s calculations based on data from the Michigan Department of Education’s “2016-17 Pupil Headcount Data (MSDS) (Fall and Spring Data)” file, available here: https://goo.gl/CwJlXd.

11. Joshua Cowen, Benjamin Creed and Venessa Keesler, “Dynamic Participation in Inter‐District Open Enrollment: Evidence from Michigan 2005-2013” (The Education Policy Center at Michigan State University, July 2015), 16, https://perma.cc/4SBG-LGZY.

12. Joshua M. Cowen, “A Look at Michigan’s Schools of Choice: What Do We Know, And What Do We Need to Learn” (Michigan State University, April 6, 2016), https://perma.cc/T6W8-K6FP.

13. Joshua Cowen, Benjamin Creed and Venessa Keesler, “Dynamic Participation in Inter‐District Open Enrollment: Evidence from Michigan 2005-2013” (The Education Policy Center at Michigan State University, July 2015), 21, https://perma.cc/4SBG-LGZY.

14. “Charter School Performance in Michigan” (Stanford University: Center for Research on Education Outcomes, Jan. 11, 2013), https://perma.cc/FDP2-RJW8; “Urban Charter School Study Report on 41 Regions” (Stanford University: Center for Research on Education Outcomes, 2015), https://perma.cc/FB2R-MFG6.

15. Joshua M. Cowen, “A Look at Michigan’s Schools of Choice: What Do We Know, And What Do We Need to Learn” (Michigan State University, April 6, 2016), https://perma.cc/T6W8-K6FP.

16. Audrey Spalding, “The Public School Market in Michigan: An Analysis of Schools of Choice” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2013), 12, https://perma.cc/3BSY-ZHDA.

17. “Michigan Charter Schools - Questions and Answers” (Michigan Department of Education, Jan. 2016), http://perma.cc/B3TA-DDMA.

18. Ashley Jochim et al., “How Parents Experience Public School Choice” (Center on Reinventing Public Education, Dec. 2014), 18, 22, https://perma.cc/F4PJ-L6GE.

19. Albert Cheng and Paul E. Peterson, “How Satisfied Are Parents with Their Children’s Schools,” Education Next XVII, Spring (2017), https://perma.cc/GP2S-BKJ2.

20. "Full School Choice Tracking Survey 2016” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Aug. 8, 2016), 20, https://perma.cc/SQE2-MZK8.