1 “The Union Difference” (AFL-CIO, 2016), https://perma.cc/RLZ5-UVT7; Louis Jacobson, “Labor Secretary Thomas Perez Says Union Members Earn $200 More a Week than Those Not in Unions” (PolitiFact, Feb. 7, 2014), https://perma.cc/QG69-DA6N.

2 Brigham R. Frandsen, “The Surprising Impacts of Unionization: Evidence From Matched Employer-Employee Data” (Brigham Young University, Dec. 24, 2014), https://perma.cc/F78H-NU6F.

3 Barry T. Hirsch and Edward J. Schumacher, “Match Bias in Wage Gap Estimates Due to Earnings Imputation,” Journal of Labor Economics 22, no. 3 (2004): 689–722, https://perma.cc/T83Y-FQKD.

4 David G Blanchflower and Alex Bryson, “What Effect Do Unions Have on Wages Now and Would Freeman and Medoff Be Surprised?,” Journal of Labor Research XXV, no. 3 (2004): 383–414, https://perma.cc/9CJ2-PX8E.

5 Ibid.

6 Andrew Dugan, “Union Members Less Content With Safety, Recognition at Work” (Gallup, Sept. 11, 2015), https://perma.cc/LRT3-HKME.

7 Richard B. Freeman and James L. Medoff, What Do Unions Do? (New York: Basic Books, 1984).

8 Henry S. Farber, “The Decline of Unionization in the United States: What Can Be Learned From REcent Experience?,” Journal of Labor Economics 8, no. 1 (Jan. 1990): S75–S105, https://perma.cc/F6AG-FUNT.

9 Emin Dinlersoz, Jeremy Greenwood and Henry Hyatt, “What Businesses Attract Unions? Unionization over the Life Cycle of U.S. Establishments,” ILR Review (July 1, 2016): 1–34, https://perma.cc/SP3B-KH7E.

10 Brigham R. Frandsen, “The Surprising Impacts of Unionization: Evidence From Matched Employer-Employee Data” (Brigham Young University, Dec. 24, 2014), https://perma.cc/F78H-NU6F.

11 Ibid.

12 Ibid.

13 Ibid.