1 U.S. Const. amend. XIV.

2 Sarah Stillman, “Taken,” The New Yorker, Aug. 12, 2013, http://perma.cc/X7QU-MG9B.

3 Marian R. Williams et al., “Asset Forfeiture Report: Michigan” (Institute for Justice, March 2010), http://perma.cc/RA4F-CRLJ; Michael Greibrok, “Civil Asset Forfeiture: Grading the States” (Freedom Works Foundation, June 8, 2015), http://perma.cc/3NHJ-XMHE.

4 Marian R. Williams et al., “Policing for Profit: The Abuse of Civil Asset Forfeiture” (Institute for Justice, March 2010), 6, http://perma.cc/X378-SQLX.

5 “Reform Civil Forfeiture Laws,” The Detroit News, Jan. 29, 2015, http://perma.cc/7L6M-Y5E4.

6 Donald J. Kochan, “Reforming Property Forfeiture Laws to Protect Citizens’ Rights” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1998), 22–26, http://perma.cc/89AV-HEFT.

7 Ibid., 13-16, 26-28.

8 Bennis v. Michigan, 517 U.S. 1163 (1996).

9 “Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure: Rule 41 - Search and Seizure” (Cornell University Law School, Dec. 1, 2014), https://perma.cc/3GBJ-XHYA.

10 “Types of Federal Forfeiture” (The U.S. Department of Justice, March 9, 2015), http://perma.cc/HZ6W-P3TE.

11 “Forfeiture” (Cornell University Law School), http://perma.cc/ N7XT-4TAP.

12 “Types of Federal Forfeiture” (The U.S. Department of Justice, March 9, 2015), http://perma.cc/HZ6W-P3TE.

13 “CRS Annotated Constitution” (Cornell University Law School, 2015), http://perma.cc/6Z6R-CK8W.

14 MCL § 600.4707(6).

15 MCL § 600.4707(2)-(3); MCL § 333.7523(c).

16 MCL § 600.4707(6)a.

17 George Hunter and Doug Guthrie, “Wayne Co. Profits from Police Property Seizures,” The Detroit News, Nov. 13, 2009, http://perma.cc/ 7HRR-9QK8.

18 MCL § 600.3801.

19 MCL § 333.7521(1)f.

20 Rebecca Otto, “Criminal Forfeitures in Minnesota” (Minnesota Office of the State Auditor, June 4, 2014), 11, http://perma.cc/WM5V-67TV.

21 Ibid., 7.

22 “Guide to Equitable Sharing for State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies” (U.S. Department of Justice, April 2009), 6, http://perma.cc/8Y3G-9C9B.

23 Ibid., 9-11.

24 Marian R. Williams et al., “Policing for Profit: The Abuse of Civil Asset Forfeiture” (Institute for Justice, March 2010), 80, http://perma.cc/X378-SQLX; Adam Bates, “North Carolina Forfeiture Case Reveals Limits of Executive Reform, Government Defensiveness” (Cato Institute, May 4, 2015), http://perma.cc/RLL7-NFM5.

25 Donald J. Kochan, “Reforming Property Forfeiture Laws to Protect Citizens’ Rights” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1998), 14, http://perma.cc/89AV-HEFT.

26 L.L. Brasier, “Police Seize Property and Cash in Questionable Raids,” Detroit Free Press, Feb. 23, 2015, http://perma.cc/88C5-4QU5.

27 George Hunter and Doug Guthrie, “Police Property Seizures Ensnare Even the Innocent,” The Detroit News, Nov. 12, 2009, http://perma.cc/G7US-XAW9.

28 Ibid.

29 Ibid.

30 Ibid.

31 Anne Schieber, “What Are the Real Motives Behind Asset Seizures?,” Michigan Capitol Confidential, Dec. 16, 2014, http://perma.cc/U55B-TXJJ.

32 Marian R. Williams et al., “Policing for Profit: The Abuse of Civil Asset Forfeiture” (Institute for Justice, March 2010), 66, http://perma.cc/X378-SQLX.“

33 Ibid., 44.

34 Michael Greibrok, “Civil Asset Forfeiture: Grading the States” (Freedom Works Foundation, June 8, 2015), 10, http://perma.cc/3NHJ-XMHE.

35 “2014 Asset Forfeiture Report” (Michigan Department of State Police, July 21, 2014), http://perma.cc/9ZT6-MCSV.

36 MCL § 333.7524(1); MCL § 750.159r.

37 MCL 750.159q(3).

38 “Preponderance of the Evidence” (Cornell University Law School), http://perma.cc/BDG4-AN5R.

39 Marian R. Williams et al., “Policing for Profit: The Abuse of Civil Asset Forfeiture” (Institute for Justice, March 2010), 20–22, http://perma.cc/X378-SQLX.

40 Ibid., 63.

41 Ibid.

42 “Civil Asset Forfeiture: 7 Things You Should Know” (The Heritage Foundation, March 26, 2014), http://perma.cc/6869-5RKL.

43 L.L. Brasier, “Police Seize Property and Cash in Questionable Raids,” Detroit Free Press, Feb. 23, 2015, http://perma.cc/88C5-4QU5.

44 Jarrett Skorup, “Bill Would Limit Asset Forfeiture In Michigan Without Criminal Conviction,” Michigan Capitol Confidential (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Dec. 20, 2013), http://perma.cc/5RGE-PUWF.

45 George Hunter and Doug Guthrie, “Wayne Co. Profits from Police Property Seizures,” The Detroit News, Nov. 13, 2009, http://perma.cc/7HRR-9QK8.

46 Donald J. Kochan, “Reforming Property Forfeiture Laws to Protect Citizens’ Rights” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1998), 6, http://perma.cc/89AV-HEFT.

47 Ibid., 7-8.

48 Ibid., 6-7.

49 “Audit of the Assets Forfeiture Fund and Seized Assets Deposit Fund, Fiscal Year 2013” (U.S. Department of Justice, Feb. 2014), 7, http://perma.cc/Q5QC-SWVF.

50 Ibid., 11.

51 Robert O’Harrow Jr., Sari Horwitz and Steven Rich, “Holder Limits Seized-Asset Sharing Process That Split Billions with Local, State Police,” The Washington Post, Jan. 16, 2015.

52 “2012 Asset Forfeiture Report” (Michigan State Police, May 23, 2012), 10; “2014 Asset Forfeiture Report” (Michigan Department of State Police, July 21, 2014), 11, http://perma.cc/9ZT6-MCSV.

53 Marian R. Williams et al., “Policing for Profit: The Abuse of Civil Asset Forfeiture” (Institute for Justice, March 2010), 67, http://perma.cc/X378-SQLX.

54 MCL 333.7524a.

55 Jonathan Oosting, “National Group Throws Weight behind Effort to Fix Michigan Civil Asset Forfeiture Laws,” MLive.com, June 25, 2015, http://perma.cc/9G4T-UAKS.

56 “2014 Asset Forfeiture Report” (Michigan Department of State Police, July 21, 2014), http://perma.cc/9ZT6-MCSV.

57 Marian R. Williams et al., “Policing for Profit: The Abuse of Civil Asset Forfeiture” (Institute for Justice, March 2010), 80, http://perma.cc/X378-SQLX.

58 “SF 874” (Minnesota State Legislature, May 12, 2014), http://perma.cc/Y9F3-PJF3.

59 Gabriel Maliha and Michael Hough, “Asset Forfeiture Reforms Happening in the States” (American Legislative Exchange Council, June 19, 2015), http://perma.cc/K2SM-WBWV.

60 “Official Roll Call: Legislative Day 51, House Bill 560, As Amended” (New Mexico State Senate, March 21, 2015), http://perma.cc/L6DN-SF2A; “HB 560/A - Final Passage” (New Mexico House of Representatives, March 17, 2015), http://perma.cc/H6CQ-X4YS.

61 “House Bill 560” (State of New Mexico, 2015), http://perma.cc/2XB2-KXV9.

62 Ibid., 25-26.

63 Ibid., 20-21.

64 “2014 Asset Forfeiture Report” (Michigan Department of State Police, July 21, 2014), 12, http://perma.cc/9ZT6-MCSV.

65 Marian R. Williams et al., “Policing for Profit: The Abuse of Civil Asset Forfeiture” (Institute for Justice, March 2010), 63, http://perma.cc/X378-SQLX.

66 Ibid., 44.